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Mark E Cleasby, Pauline M Jamieson, and Philip J Atherton

. 2014 ). It has also been associated with increased mortality in some prospective studies ( Landi et al. 2013 ) but not others ( Cesari et al. 2009 ). The concept of ‘sarcopenic obesity’ (SO) was introduced to highlight a syndrome present in a

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Pegah JafariNasabian, Julia E Inglis, Wendimere Reilly, Owen J Kelly, and Jasminka Z Ilich

: osteopenic/osteoporotic obesity and sarcopenic obesity, of which each one could also exist on its own ( Ilich et al. 2014 b , 2016 ). All of these conditions may lead to increased risk of fractures and morbidity and declined functionality ( Fig. 2

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Yoshinori Kanemaru, Norio Harada, Satoko Shimazu-Kuwahara, Shunsuke Yamane, Eri Ikeguchi, Yuki Murata, Sakura Kiyobayashi, Tomonobu Hatoko, and Nobuya Inagaki

causes insulin resistance through inflammation ( Kalyani et al . 2014 ). This age-related change is called ‘sarcopenic obesity’, and is an important health issue in aging societies ( Prado et al . 2012 , Cleasy et al . 2016 ). Obesity is related to a

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Elena Conte, Adele Romano, Michela De Bellis, Marialuisa de Ceglia, Maria Rosaria Carratù, Silvana Gaetani, Fatima Maqoud, Domenico Tricarico, and Claudia Camerino

sarcopenic obesity ( Mantella et al. 2003 , Roubenoff 2004 , Rinaman et al. 2005 , Aguiari et al. 2008 , Kublaoui et al. 2008 , Takayanagi et al. 2008 , Camerino 2009 b , Zizzo et al. 2019 ). Indeed, the muscle fat infiltration might be one

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Hassina Ould Hamouda, Bernadette Delplanque, Yacir Benomar, Delphine Crépin, Laure Riffault, Pascale LeRuyet, Cécile Bonhomme, and Mohammed Taouis

2014 Muscle contractile and metabolic dysfunction is a common feature of sarcopenia of aging and chronic diseases: from sarcopenic obesity to cachexia . Clinical Nutrition 33 737 – 748 . ( doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.007 ) Cancelas J Prieto PG

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Manon M Roustit, Joan M Vaughan, Pauline M Jamieson, and Mark E Cleasby

cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation . Endocrinology 147 31 – 38 . ( doi:10.1210/en.2005-1033 ) Stenholm S Harris TB Rantanen T Visser M Kritchevsky SB Ferrucci L 2008 Sarcopenic obesity: definition, cause and

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Urszula T Iwaniec and Russell T Turner

and clinical relevance . Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 16 1204 – 1213 . ( doi:10.1111/dom.12363 ) Scott D Chandrasekara SD Laslett LL Cicuttini F Ebeling PR Jones G 2016 Associations of sarcopenic obesity and