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Juthamard Surapongchai, Mujalin Prasannarong, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr and Vitoon Saengsirisuwan

Introduction Insulin resistance of skeletal muscle represents a major defect in the maintenance of euglycemia and is often accompanied by a variety of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities, including glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia

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Kok Lim Kua, Shanming Hu, Chunlin Wang, Jianrong Yao, Diana Dang, Alexander B Sawatzke, Jeffrey L Segar, Kai Wang and Andrew W Norris

hyperglycemia rapidly developed skeletal muscle insulin resistance while still in utero . The insulin signaling defects persisted through postnatal life, localized to skeletal muscle. Uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal hyperinsulinism did not have these

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John-Paul Fuller-Jackson and Belinda A Henry

energy expenditure is reduced adaptive thermogenesis ( Rosenbaum et al . 2008 , Camps et al . 2015 , Henry et al . 2017 ), which occurs in both skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT). To investigate the specific metabolic adaptations that

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Ishita Bakshi, Eurwin Suryana, Lewin Small, Lake-Ee Quek, Amanda E Brandon, Nigel Turner and Gregory J Cooney

Introduction Reduced levels of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis are a well characterised feature of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes ( Bouche et al . 2004 , Abdul-Ghani & DeFronzo 2010 ). In general, the flux through glycolysis is

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Gabriela Capllonch-Amer, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Ana M Proenza, Isabel Lladó, Magdalena Gianotti and Francisco J García-Palmer

Introduction Sexual dimorphism in mitochondrial functionality has been described in many rat tissues such as liver, adipose tissue, brain, and skeletal muscle ( Colom et al . 2007 a , b , Valle et al . 2007 a , b , Gómez-Pérez et al . 2008

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Yuriko Kitajima and Yusuke Ono

. 2015 ). Thus, understanding the regulation of satellite cells is critical to elucidate the mechanisms in skeletal muscle maintenance. Several studies have reported that estrogens appear to favor muscle regeneration after injury ( Diel 2014 ). Estrogens

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Jonathan M Mudry, Julie Massart, Ferenc L M Szekeres and Anna Krook

investigated gene. TWIST proteins play important roles in tissue differentiation. In skeletal muscle, TWIST1 blocks myogenesis via inhibition of MYOD transactivation ( Hamamori et al . 1997 ), which may lead to myotube dedifferentiation ( Hjiantoniou et al

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Flavia F Bloise, Aline Cordeiro and Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho

Introduction Skeletal muscle (SM) is widely distributed and represents approximately 40% of human body mass ( Kim et al . 2016 ); therefore, any change in the energetic profile of SM has important effects on systemic physiology. Indeed, SM is

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Jordan M Willcox, Alastair J S Summerlee and Coral L Murrant

( Teerlink et al . 2009 , Metra et al . 2010 , Teichman et al . 2010 ). In spite of the recent progression of clinical trials, our understanding of the effects of relaxin in the cardiovascular system remains incomplete. Skeletal muscle resistance

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Masahiro Ogawa, Tomoya Kitakaze, Naoki Harada and Ryoichi Yamaji

tissues such as skeletal muscle, adipose, and bone ( Heldring et al . 2007 ). Administration of the estrogen 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) reduces soleus muscle fiber size in young ovariectomized (OVX) female rats ( McCormick et al . 2004 ) and decreases soleus