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Ankana Ganguly, Jennifer A Tamblyn, Sarah Finn-Sell, Shiao-Y Chan, Melissa Westwood, Janesh Gupta, Mark D Kilby, Stephane R Gross, and Martin Hewison

, initiated by attachment of the embryo to the maternal endometrial epithelium and invasion of fetal trophoblast cells into the maternal endometrium to facilitate maternal–fetal exchange of nutrients, gases and waste. The diverse mechanisms associated with the

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Ankana Ganguly, Jennifer A Tamblyn, Alexandra Shattock, Annsha Joseph, Dean P Larner, Carl Jenkinson, Janesh Gupta, Janesh R Gross, and Martin Hewison

trophoblast also express CYP27B1 and the intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR) for 1,25D ( Zehnder et al. 2001 ). Thus, the placenta, like the kidney, has a significant capacity for vitamin D metabolism that may be supported by megalin-mediated DBP

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Bethany R L Aykroyd, Simon J Tunster, and Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri

2005 ) and the two zones can be physically separated ( Sferruzzi-Perri et al. 2009 ). The Jz is composed of three major endocrine cell types: spongiotrophoblasts (SpT), glycogen cells (GC) and trophoblast giant cells (TGC). Murine GC are considered to

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Delphine Benaitreau, Esther Dos Santos, Marie-Christine Leneveu, Nadia Alfaidy, Jean-Jacques Feige, Philippe de Mazancourt, René Pecquery, and Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné

Introduction Implantation requires a number of distinct cellular functions including attachment and invasion of the extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) into the endometrium. Deficient trophoblastic invasion contributes to the poor success rates of IVF

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Ching-Wen Chang, Anna K Wakeland, and Mana M Parast

. 2012 ). Following implantation, cytotrophoblast (CTB) precursor cells expand and further differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast (STB) in floating villi or extravillous trophoblast (EVT) in anchoring villi ( James et al . 2012 ). Further development of

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Muhammad Furqan Bari, Sherry Ngo, Claire C Bastie, Allan M Sheppard, and Manu Vatish

placenta-derived molecules implicated in the manifestation of insulin resistance associated with GDM ( Desoye & Hauguel-de Mouzon 2007 ). The key functioning unit of the placenta is the chorionic villus, in which a multi-nucleated trophoblast (comprising of

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M Giakoumopoulos and T G Golos

relevance. The first differentiation event in the preimplantation mammalian embryo is the formation of the trophectoderm that will contribute the trophoblast compartment of the placenta. The responsibilities of the trophoblasts include signaling the presence

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Several studies have indicated that mouse blastocysts proliferate when transplanted to extra-uterine sites such as the eye (Runner, 1947; Fawcett, Wislocki & Waldo, 1947), kidney (Fawcett, 1950; Kirby, 1960), spleen (Kirby, 1963a) and testis (Kirby, 1963b) and that the growth of trophoblast cells is independent of the endocrine status of the host mouse.

In a normal pregnancy the trophoblast contributes to the endocrine milieu of the mouse by producing a luteotrophic substance (Newton & Beck, 1939; Cerruti & Lyons, 1960). According to Kirby (1965, 1966) this substance is produced by the decidua and, in experimental conditions, by the uterine stroma under the influence of adjacent trophoblast cells. This conclusion was borne out by his experiments in which trophoblast tissue growing under the kidney capsule would not stop the oestrous cycle, inhibit mating with ensuing pregnancy, or stimulate the corpora lutea. Moreover, a considerable degree of mammary gland stimulation

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F A Hills, M G Elder, T Chard, and M H F Sullivan

Introduction Proper development of the human placenta is essential if normal pregnancy is to be maintained. This includes growth of the placenta, differentiation of the trophoblast and vascular systems, invasion of extravillous

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Daisuke Fujita, Akiko Tanabe, Tatsuharu Sekijima, Hekiko Soen, Keijirou Narahara, Yoshiki Yamashita, Yoshito Terai, Hideki Kamegai, and Masahide Ohmichi

Introduction During the first trimester of human pregnancy, extravillous trophoblasts from placental villi invade the deciduas and form plugs which temporarily occlude the spiral arteries and prevent maternal blood flow from entering the