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Sheree D Martin and Sean L McGee

disease cluster, numerous epidemiological studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes are at a greater risk of developing breast cancer ( Xue & Michels 2007 ). The incidence of type 2 diabetes has been steadily increasing for decades and

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Laura Marroqui, Eva Tudurí, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena, Iván Quesada, Ángel Nadal, and Reinaldo Sousa dos Santos

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, lifelong condition characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from persistent insulin resistance (IR) and/or insufficient insulin production due to β-cell dysfunction or death ( Prentki & Nolan

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Lihong Fu, Yixuan Qiu, Linyan Shen, Canqi Cui, Shuang Wang, Shujie Wang, Yun Xie, Xinjie Zhao, Xianfu Gao, Guang Ning, Aifang Nie, and Yanyun Gu

.1371/journal.pone.0142352 ) 10.1371/journal.pone.0142352 Mikkelsen KH Knop FK Frost M Hallas J Pottegard A 2015b Use of antibiotics and risk of type 2 diabetes: a population-based case-control study . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and

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Kaiyuan Yang, Jonathan Gotzmann, Sharee Kuny, Hui Huang, Yves Sauvé, and Catherine B Chan

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder associated with chronic hyperglycemia and disruptions in carbo­hydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism, resulting from decreased production or altered responsiveness to insulin ( Reaven

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Yi Lin and Zhongjie Sun

Introduction It is estimated that diabetes affects about 150 million people worldwide, and this figure is expected to be doubled in the next 20 years ( Zimmet et al . 2001 ). About 90–95% of all North American cases of diabetes are type 2 diabetes

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Paige V Bauer and Frank A Duca

Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes has more than doubled since 1980, with over 382 million affected individuals worldwide, in conjunction with an increase in obesity rates and the spread of a western lifestyle ( Scully 2012 ). Given

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Haijiang Wu, Xinna Deng, Yonghong Shi, Ye Su, Jinying Wei, and Huijun Duan

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic isorder characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion deficiency due to β-cell dysfunction. The global prevalence of T2DM is

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Malin Fex, Lisa M Nicholas, Neelanjan Vishnu, Anya Medina, Vladimir V Sharoyko, David G Nicholls, Peter Spégel, and Hindrik Mulder

Introduction Seminal work in the 1960s and 1970s established that insulin secretion is deficient in type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( Bagdade et al . 1967 , Simpson et al . 1968 ). In the last decade, a number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS

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K Fosgerau, P Galle, T Hansen, A Albrechtsen, C de Lemos Rieper, B Klarlund Pedersen, L Kongskov Larsen, A Randrup Thomsen, O Pedersen, M Bagge Hansen, and A Steensberg

Introduction A complex interplay of pre- and post-natal environmental factors and polygenetics is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes ( Andersen et al . 2005 ). Prominent pathological features include insulin resistance, inability in a

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Simon J Dunmore and James E P Brown

Introduction Pancreatic β-cell failure, alongside insulin resistance, can be considered as one of the two key events that leads to the development of type 2 diabetes ( Leahy et al . 2010 ). In the early stages of the disease, insulin resistance is