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Stephen P Ashcroft, Gareth Fletcher, Ashleigh M Philp, Carl Jenkinson, Shatarupa Das, Philip M Hansbro, Philip J Atherton, and Andrew Philp

Introduction Vitamin D deficiency, characterised by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels of < 50 nmol/L, remains prevalent across both Europe and the United States of America ( Forrest & Stuhldreher 2011 , Cashman et al. 2016

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Daniela Leite de Oliveira, Camila Hirotsu, Sergio Tufik, and Monica Levy Andersen

Introduction The musculoskeletal benefits of vitamin D are widely known: they promote the calcification of bone matrix and increase the absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestine. Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children

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J A Tamblyn, M Hewison, C L Wagner, J N Bulmer, and M D Kilby

of vitamin D at the maternal–fetal interface. Illustration of both the innate and adaptive leukocyte decidual subsets with the potential capacity for intrinsic 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) synthesis from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD

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Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse, and Caitlin S Wyrwoll

Introduction The quality of early life environment is a powerful determinant of adult health outcomes, including brain function ( Cottrell & Seckl 2009 ). The abundant expression of vitamin D receptors within the foetal brain ( Eyles et al

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Ankana Ganguly, Jennifer A Tamblyn, Sarah Finn-Sell, Shiao-Y Chan, Melissa Westwood, Janesh Gupta, Mark D Kilby, Stephane R Gross, and Martin Hewison

regulation of trophoblast invasion have been well documented ( Menkhorst et al . 2016 ). The aim of the current review is to provide an overview of these early events in placental development, with particular emphasis on the potential role of vitamin D as a

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Lauriane Bonnet, Esma Karkeni, Charlène Couturier, Julien Astier, Catherine Defoort, Ljubica Svilar, Franck Tourniaire, Lourdes Mounien, and Jean-François Landrier

Introduction Low levels of total circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) are strongly associated with obesity and more specially with increased fat mass and BMI ( Vilarrasa et al. 2007 , Earthman et al. 2012 , Landrier et al. 2016

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Kevin J P Ryan, Zoe C T R Daniel, Lucinda J L Craggs, Tim Parr, and John M Brameld

Introduction Vitamin D (VitD) is a key nutrient for maintaining the health of the musculoskeletal system, with VitD deficiency leading to myopathy, classically characterised by hypotonia, weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscle, and a deterioration

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Ida Marie Boisen, John Erik Nielsen, Lieve Verlinden, Mette Lorenzen, Rune Holt, Anja Pinborg, Christine Hjorth Andreassen, Anders Juul, Beate Lanske, Geert Carmeliet, and Martin Blomberg Jensen

Introduction All the classical target organs of vitamin D – intestine, bone, and kidney – play a central role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis ( Bouillon et al. 2008 , Lieben et al. 2011 ). However, in recent years

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Jui-Cheng Hsieh, Rudolf C Estess, Ichiro Kaneko, G Kerr Whitfield, Peter W Jurutka, and Mark R Haussler

Introduction Molecular control of the mammalian hair cycle is incompletely characterized. Three gene products that are involved in this process are hairless (HR), the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα). Loss

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Rene F Chun, John S Adams, and Martin Hewison

Introduction At the end of 2007, Time magazine listed the ‘Benefits of Vitamin D’ as one of its top ten ‘medical breakthroughs’ of the year. The reason for this they stated has been the recent remarkable increase in studies documenting new actions