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Malek El Muayed, Liana K Billings, Meera R Raja, Xiaomin Zhang, Paul J Park, Marsha V Newman, Dixon B Kaufman, Thomas V O'Halloran and William L Lowe Jr

Introduction A low level chronic inflammatory state with elevated circulating inflammatory cytokine levels is thought to be an important contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Impaired function of insulin secreting β-cells

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Weiwei Xu, Jamie Morford and Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

dysfunction is necessary for hyperglycemia to develop, the role of testosterone in β cell function and insulin secretion is poorly understood. This review discusses how testosterone acts on the AR in the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas in a sexually

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Liqiong Song, Wei Xia, Zhao Zhou, Yuanyuan Li, Yi Lin, Jie Wei, Zhengzheng Wei, Bing Xu, Jie Shen, Weiyong Li and Shunqing Xu

to ERs were E 2 >DES>NP>OP>BPA ( Nakada et al . 2004 ), to investigate their effects on β-cell function. To further understand the disruptive effects of different phenolic estrogen pollutants on the isolated islets, morphology and ultrastructure of β-cells

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Brit H Boehmer, Sean W Limesand and Paul J Rozance

( Forsén et al. 2000 , Fabricius-Bjerre et al. 2011 , Kajantie et al. 2015 ). Several studies also report impaired β-cell function, which persists throughout life ( Cook et al. 1993 , Crowther et al. 2000 , Jensen et al. 2002 , Bazaes et

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Michael Rouse, Antoine Younès and Josephine M Egan

in the development of T2DM, as they are required to secrete increasing amounts of insulin so as to compensate for increasing insulin resistance. Consequently, the β-cells come under increasing metabolic stress and finally their function deteriorates

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Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Kevin Noel Keane, Anita Lavarda Scheinpflug, Robson Cordeiro, Mario J Soares and Philip Newsholme

without Ala-Gln ( P <0.05). The summary of the beneficial effects of Ala-Gln on β-cell function and protein expression following inflammatory challenge is provided in Table 2 . Figure 5 SIRT1 (A), HSP70 (B) and HUR (C) protein levels obtained from BRIN

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A L Fowden, D S Gardner, J C Ousey, D A Giussani and A J Forhead

immediately after birth compared with the full-term neonates ( Fowden et al. 1982 b ). These observations suggest that there may be maturational changes in pancreatic β-cell function in the fetus in the period immediately before birth. In the horse

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Soo Bong Choi, Jin Sun Jang, Sang Mee Hong, Dong Wha Jun and Sunmin Park

insulin resistance is associated with not only β-cell function, but also its mass, through alteration of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I signaling cascade ( Withers et al. 1998 , White 1999 , Rhodes & White 2002 ). The enhancement of

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S K Richards, L E Parton, I Leclerc, G A Rutter and R M Smith

explored the cytoprotective and metabolic effects of modulating β-cell AMPK activity in vivo by monitoring the survival and function of a suboptimal islet mass transplanted into syngeneic diabetic mice. To this end, a suboptimal islet transplant mass was

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P Newsholme, E Rebelato, F Abdulkader, M Krause, A Carpinelli and R Curi

, Newsholme et al . 2007 a , b , Gehrmann et al . 2010 ). Interestingly, impairment, or otherwise, of β-cell function may depend on the antioxidant system involved in the scavenging process, as specific manipulation in antioxidant defenses may result in