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Juan Sun, Liqun Mao, Hongyan Yang, and Decheng Ren

Introduction A decrease in pancreatic β-cell mass is associated with diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 1 diabetes have a dramatic reduction in β-cell mass, leading to insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia. In type 2 diabetes, insulin

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Ying Zhao, Qinghua Fang, Susanne G Straub, Manfred Lindau, and Geoffrey W G Sharp

Introduction Prostaglandins inhibit insulin secretion in clonal β-cells ( Robertson et al. 1987 , Seaquist et al. 1989 ), rat pancreatic islets ( D’Ocon et al. 1988 ), and human islets ( Straub et al. 1998 ). Along with norepinephrine

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Xiaofeng Wang and Catherine B Chan

the context of diabetes mellitus, n-3 PUFAs have anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing functions ( Kalupahana et al . 2011 ). However, the effect of n-3 PUFAs on insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is not well recognized. Defects in insulin

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Jennifer Chen and Jenny E Gunton

pancreatic islets. Although they consist of only 1–2% of the adult pancreas, islets are critical for regulating glucose homeostasis. The hormone insulin is secreted solely by islet β-cells. When blood glucose levels rise, insulin is released. Diabetes occurs

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Benjamin J Lamont and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

Introduction The incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) act via specific G-protein-coupled receptors to potentiate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner

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Manesh Chittezhath, Cho M M Wai, Vanessa S Y Tay, Minni Chua, Sarah R Langley, and Yusuf Ali

as insulin resistance ( Shi et al. 2006 , Konner & Bruning 2011 , Sun et al. 2012 , Donath 2014 ). TLRs were also directly implicated in insulin-producing cell β-cell pathology. TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4, were strongly associated with β-cell

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Ernest Sargsyan, Henrik Ortsäter, Kristofer Thorn, and Peter Bergsten

Introduction Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have impaired β-cell function, which leads to reduced or absent first phase and curtailment of the second phase in postprandial blood insulin levels ( Porte & Kahn 2001 ). In addition

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Subhshri Sahu, David Tosh, and Anandwardhan A Hardikar

for obtaining insulin-producing cells: existing β-cells from the other pancreatic cell types (endocrine, acinar or ductal), provoking regeneration from human embryonic stem cells, recapitulating the normal sequence of developmental events that leads to

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Noèlia Téllez and Eduard Montanya

Introduction β-cell mass reduction is a central event in the development of types 1 and 2 diabetes, and β-cell regeneration is a potentially curative treatment for the disease. Strategies aiming to regenerate β-cell mass include stimulation of

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Gabriele Wolf, Nicole Aumann, Marta Michalska, Antje Bast, Jürgen Sonnemann, James F Beck, Uwe Lendeckel, Philip Newsholme, and Reinhard Walther

Introduction Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells during the development of type 1 diabetes is a complex process involving both cellular and humoral elements of cytotoxicity ( Mandrup-Poulsen et al . 1990 ). It is characterized by insulitis