-associated microvascular dysfunction is complex and poorly understood, and thus, therapeutic interventions to prevent or treat these disorders are limited. However, proinsulin C-peptide has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of diabetes
Gina L C Yosten, Grant R Kolar, Lauren J Redlinger and Willis K Samson
Mahendra Prasad Bhatt, Yeon-Ju Lee, Se-Hui Jung, Yong Ho Kim, Jong Yun Hwang, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim and Kwon-Soo Ha
preventing long-term cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes ( Ihnat et al . 2007 , Ceriello et al . 2009 a , b ). C-peptide is one such potential agent, due to its ability to inhibit ROS-mediated intracellular events, including mitochondrial
Michele O Wilson, Bryony A McNeill, Graham K Barrell, Timothy C R Prickett and Eric A Espiner
Introduction C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a paracrine growth factor that regulates cell proliferation and maturation, is widely expressed along with its receptor (NPR-2) throughout the brain and spinal cord in mammals ( Komatsu et al
T C R Prickett, J C Bothwell, T G Yandle, A M Richards and E A Espiner
Introduction C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) belongs to a family of peptides recognised for their cardioprotective actions within the heart ( Potter et al . 2006 ) and vasculature ( Suga et al . 1992 ). Considered to have a long lineage dating
Timothy C R Prickett, Graham K Barrell, Martin Wellby, Timothy G Yandle, A Mark Richards and Eric A Espiner
Introduction C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) belongs to a family of highly conserved peptides best known for their actions on fluid balance, blood pressure regulation and cardiac remodelling ( Espiner et al . 1995 , Potter et al . 2006
T Walther and H Stepan
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) belongs to the natriuretic peptide family that consists of three structurally related peptides with a 17-amino acid ring linked by a disulfide bond. In contrast to atrial and brain natriuretic peptides that are mainly cardiovascular hormones, CNP acts predominantly in an autocrine/paracrine fashion, is commonly considered to be an endothelial hormone with antimitogenic properties, and is characterized as a regulator of endochondral ossification. Its biological effects are mediated by an intracellular cGMP accumulation via specific membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B) activation. There is growing evidence that this peptide is also involved in various reproductive processes as well as in embryonic and fetal development. In rodents, CNP and its receptor are highly expressed in the uterus and ovaries with specific regulation during the estrous cycle. During pregnancy, CNP mRNA is detectable in mice embryos and shows an organ-specific expression in maternal reproductive tIssues with the highest concentration in the placenta. This could indicate a defined biological function of the CNP/GC-B/cGMP axis in gestation e.g. antagonizing vasoconstrictive peptides like angiotensin II. In humans, besides a postulated fetal de novo synthesis of CNP, both the peptide and its receptor are expressed in the placenta and myometrium with opposite regulation of CNP in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation. Since the maternal plasma levels do not reflect these alterations, one can conclude that this part of the natriuretic peptide system acts locally suggesting that CNP-stimulated cGMP release exhibits organ-specific effects. Importantly, CNP has also become a peptide with a distinct role in male reproductive processes, since endocrine function of the testis and the regulation of penile erection are regulated by the CNP/GC-B axis. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the multiple functions of CNP in reproduction and pregnancy as well as in embryonic and fetal development.
Chun-Hsien Chu, Bor-Show Tzang, Li-Mien Chen, Chia-Hua Kuo, Yi-Chang Cheng, Ling-Yun Chen, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Chang-Hai Tsai, Wei-Wen Kuo and Chih-Yang Huang
in binding, cross-linking and thymidine incorporation experiments . Endocrinology 128 1201 – 1203 . Boker C von Figura K Hille-Rehfeld A 1997 The carboxy-terminal peptides of 46 kDa and 300 kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptors share partial
DF Sellitti, E Puggina, C Lagranha and SQ Doi
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its cognate guanylyl cyclase receptor, the natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) together constitute a regulatory system that controls cell function via the generation of intracellular cyclic GMP. In this report we have examined the role of cAMP signaling in the regulation of CNP and NPR-B activity in the FRTL-5 rat thyroid follicular cell line. As had been observed earlier with TSH, the cAMP mimetic, dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP; 1 mM) induced a significant reduction in CNP-stimulated cGMP generation that was first apparent after 6 h of treatment. The inhibitory effect of dbcAMP on NPR-B was dose dependent, with an EC50 of 0.2 mM. Pretreatment of FRTL-5 cells with either of two protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors, KT-5720 and H-89, failed to curtail the dbcAMP reduction in NPR-B activity, suggesting that the cAMP pathway leading to inhibition of NPR-B is PKA independent. Whereas either a 30-min or a 24-h treatment with the protein kinase C-activator phorbol myristate acetate failed to alter maximal levels of CNP-stimulated cGMP, a 24-h exposure to the calcium ionophore A23187 reduced CNP-stimulated cGMP to about one-third of control. Pretreatment of FRTL-5 cells with the cell-permeable calcium chelator 1,2 bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N1,N1-tetraacetic acid, tetraacetoxymethyl ester completely abrogated the cAMP-induced reduction of CNP-stimulated cGMP. Real-time PCR showed no effect of dbcAMP on NPR-B transcript at 3 and 6 h, but indicated a 40% reduction in transcript by dbcAMP at 24 h. In contrast, real-time PCR indicated a 5-fold increase in CNP transcript at 3 h, reaching 15.4-fold above control at 6 h in cells treated with dbcAMP. In addition, immunofluorescence staining of FRTL-5 cells with a specific antibody for CNP-22 showed the presence of cytoplasmic CNP that was up-regulated by incubation with either TSH or dbcAMP. These results suggested that cAMP signaling regulates the natriuretic peptide system in rat thyroid cells by increasing CNP expression, and reducing NPR-B activity. This latter action of cAMP appears to be both PKA independent and calcium dependent, and provides support for a dominant role for calcium in the regulation of NPR-B in the rat thyroid.
H Sakaguchi and Y Takei
Only C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been identified in primitive elasmobranch fish. CNP is the most conserved molecule in the natriuretic peptide family, suggesting that it is the ancestral type. As a first step to investigating the ancestral type of natriuretic peptide receptors, CNP receptors were characterised in an elasmobranch (dogfish, Triakis scyllia) by radioligand-binding analysis using 125I-[Tyr0]-dogfish (df)CNP. None of the modifications of the CNP molecule that occur at the time of iodination (addition of a Tyr residue at the N-terminus, introduction of iodine into Tyr0 or oxidation of Met17) affect the affinity of dfCNP for the receptors. Neither did oxidation of Met17 decrease the ability of CNP to stimulate cGMP production. In the tissues examined, CNP receptors were densest in the gill cells followed by the intestine, interrenal gland and rectal gland, all of which are involved in osmoregulation in elasmobranchs. CNP-stimulated guanylate cyclase (GC) activity was highest in the interrenal gland, intestine, brain and rectal gland, followed by the gill cells. Since the gill cells seem to contain both GC-coupled and uncoupled receptors, this tissue was used to characterise dogfish CNP receptors. Scatchard analysis of the saturation isotherm revealed two classes of binding site: one has a Kd of 24.0 pM and Bmax of 59.9 fmol/mg protein, and the other has low affinity (Kd > 1 nM) and high capacity (Bmax > 200 fmol/mg protein). The higher-affinity binding sites may represent GC-uncoupled receptors, because C-ANF, a specific ligand for GC-uncoupled receptors, almost completely displaced CNP binding. Affinity-labelling experiments showed that dogfish receptors have molecular masses of about 90, 170 and 340 kDa, and CNP binding to the former two receptors is inhibited by C-ANF. After reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, most 170 kDa labelling was shifted to 90 kDa. It is concluded that GC-uncoupled receptors in the dogfish gill have higher molecular mass than those of mammals and eel (about 65 kDa), and are present mostly as monomers even in non-reducing conditions. However, a small population of GC-coupled receptors is also present, as demonstrated by an increase in cGMP production.
SJ Shin, JD Wen, YJ Lee, IH Chen and JH Tsai
To investigate the responsiveness of renal-synthesized C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) to changes in water and electrolyte balance, we measured renal CNP mRNA levels, plasma CNP concentrations and urinary CNP excretion rates in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats eating a normal (0.26% NaCl) or low (0.04% NaCl) salt diet. Using reverse transcription-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis, we found that renal cortical and medullary CNP mRNA levels were markedly enhanced in diabetic rats from the 14th day and remained enhanced with an accompanying elevation of urinary CNP excretion rates for the entire 60-day study period. All increases of renal CNP mRNA and urinary CNP excretion rates in diabetic rats were attenuated in low salt diet-treated diabetic rats as well as insulin-treated diabetic rats. These results demonstrate that renal CNP synthesis is enhanced in diabetic rats and the increase of renal CNP mRNA is ameliorated by salt restriction and insulin treatment. These results imply that renal-synthesized CNP is responsive to the alteration of water and electrolyte homeostasis in diabetic rats.