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Youichi Sato, Takanobu Kamada, and Aiko Yamauchi

et al . 2008 ). Recently, incretin mimetics, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, have been used as anti-diabetic agents. DPP4 is present on the surface of various cell types, including kidney

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Yasushi Kirino, Youichi Sato, Takayuki Kamimoto, Kazuyoshi Kawazoe, Kazuo Minakuchi, and Yutaka Nakahori

Introduction Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4, EC3.4.14.5) exists on the surface of various types of cells, such as kidney, liver, small intestine, pancreas, and in a soluble form in plasma ( Mentlein 1999 ). DPP4 is a serine protease, which cleaves

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Benjamin J Lamont and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

. However, the native forms of GLP1 and GIP are rapidly inactivated in vivo by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). Therefore, pharmacological approaches aimed at enhancing incretin action have focused on either utilising incretin analogues that are

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Jacob Jelsing, Niels Vrang, Søren B van Witteloostuijn, Michael Mark, and Thomas Klein

(T2D; Drucker 2006 ). GLP1 is rapidly degraded in the body by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4); thus, inhibition of this enzyme increases GLP1 exposure and thereby its effect on the pancreas ( Drucker 2007 ). For this reason, inhibitors of DPP4 are

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Hiranya Pintana, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, and Siriporn C Chattipakorn

comparison with the ND group, ND, normal diet-fed rats; HFD, high-fat diet-fed rats. Data are presented as mean± s.e.m . The independent t -test was used as the statistical analysis ( n =30/group). Figure 2 Effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on learning and memory

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Sarah J Meachem, Saleela M Ruwanpura, Jessica Ziolkowski, Jacquelyn M Ague, Michael K Skinner, and Kate L Loveland

. Each animal received s.c. injections 2 days prior to death at 3 days dpp, and 2 and 4 days prior to death at 9 and 18 dpp. Ten rats were injected for each data point. Tissue collection and preparation One h prior to

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Flávia Maria Silva-Veiga, Carolline Santos Miranda, Fabiane Ferreira Martins, Julio Beltrame Daleprane, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, and Vanessa Souza-Mello

inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) that suppresses the rapid degradation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gastrointestinal hormone (incretin) that increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion. DPP-4 inhibitors decrease GLP-1 degradation

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Nattayaporn Apaijai, Tharnwimol Inthachai, Suree Lekawanvijit, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, and Nipon Chattipakorn

subgroups ( n =6 per group) to receive one of the following treatments: vehicle (V; 0.9% normal saline solution in an equal volume), DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin (Vil; 3mg/kg/day, LAF 237, Novartis), metformin (M; 30mg/kg/day, Glucophage, Merck Serono

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Franca S Angeli and Richard P Shannon

secretion and gastric emptying, and reduction of appetite ( Drucker 2006 , Ussher & Drucker 2012 ). The native peptide (GLP-1 (7–36) amide) is rapidly cleavage by the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) enzyme ( Deacon et al . 1995 ), limiting circulating half

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Sarah L Craig, Victor A Gault, Gerd Hamscher, and Nigel Irwin

Introduction Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are an orally available class of drugs, clinically approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ( Scott 2017 ). The primary therapeutic benefit of DPP-4 inhibitors in T2DM