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Li Li, Xiaohua Li, Wenjun Zhou and Joseph L Messina

hypothesized that acute psychological stress could induce the acute development of insulin resistance that was tested in an established animal model of psychological stress consisting of 180 inescapable foot shocks (IES) followed by a behavioral escape test

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Francesca Spiga, Louise R Harrison, Cliona P MacSweeney, Fiona J Thomson, Mark Craighead and Stafford L Lightman

. 1991 , Ma et al . 1997 ) immobilization ( Bartanusz et al . 1993 , Makino et al . 1995 ) and foot shock ( Bartanusz et al . 1993 , Sawchenko et al . 1993 , Makino et al . 1995 ) or during the chronic stress of adjuvant arthritis ( Chowdrey et