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Marian Ludgate

In a paper entitled ‘Influence of thyroidectomy on thyroxine metabolism and turnover rate in rats’, Nagao et al . (2011) have investigated thyroid hormone kinetics in the hypothyroid state. In a number of carefully performed studies, which rely

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Andréa Gonçalves Trentin

& Robitaille 2003 , Nedergaard et al. 2003 , Bachoo et al. 2004 ). Astrocytes are mediators of thyroid hormone metabolism in the brain The importance of thyroid hormone for normal brain development is well documented

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Rosalba Senese, Federica Cioffi, Pieter de Lange, Fernando Goglia, and Antonia Lanni

Introduction General notions The thyroid gland produces two main iodothyronines: tetraiodo- l -thyronine (T 4 ) and triiodo- l -thyronine (T 3 ). In humans, T 4 is synthesized entirely within the thyroid and acts as a pro-hormone to generate T 3

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J Patel, K Landers, H Li, R H Mortimer, and K Richard

development was made very much later ( Cranefield 1962 , Morreale de Escobar et al . 2004 ). Thyroid hormones (thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 )) are essential for the development and maintenance of normal physiological processes, especially

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Cyril S Anyetei-Anum, Vincent R Roggero, and Lizabeth A Allison

Introduction Thyroid hormone is essential for many diverse processes in nearly all vertebrate tissues, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling underpins several human diseases ( Laudet & Gronemeyer 2002 , Chen et al . 2013 , Kim & Cheng 2013

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K Boelaert and J A Franklyn

a neurological or a skin disorder ( Gull 1874 , Sawin 2000 ). The dramatic increase in our understanding of thyroid hormone action as well as of the clinical implications of thyroid dysfunction that has occurred during the last two centuries, will

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Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes Souza, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas, and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura

Thyroid hormone effects on lipid metabolism The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), modulate several physiological processes in organisms and are critical in the growth, development, differentiation and maintenance of

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Márcia Santos Wagner, Simone Magagnin Wajner, and Ana Luiza Maia

that the adult testis of experimental animals was metabolically unresponsive to thyroid hormones ( Barker & Klitgaard 1952 ), and to the low number of thyroid hormone-binding sites found in the adult organ ( Oppenheimer et al . 1974 ). These early

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Anne H van der Spek, Eric Fliers, and Anita Boelen

Introduction The interplay between the endocrine and immune system is well established ( Besedovsky & del Rey 1996 , Klein 2006 , Schaefer & Klein 2011 ). Thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism and TH status have been linked to various aspects of

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A J Forhead and A L Fowden

Introduction The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ), are detectable in the fetal circulation from early in gestation and have important developmental, metabolic, and maturational effects in the fetus in all species