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Liping Luo and Meilian Liu

Introduction Adipose tissue, which is primarily composed of adipocytes as well as pre-adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and leucocytes, has been increasingly recognized as a major player of systemically metabolic

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Carsten T Herz and Florian W Kiefer

Adipose tissue browning and whitening A hallmark feature of adipose tissue browning is the induction of thermogenically active adipocytes in white fat depots. These adipocytes are often referred to as beige or brite (brown in white) cells and

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Vitaly Ablamunits, Simon Klebanov, Sharon Y Giese, and Kevan C Herold

Introduction A growing evidence indicates that white adipose tissue (WAT) is an important endocrine organ secreting a number of factors collectively known as adipokines. Some of these factors, such as leptin ( Zhang et al . 1994 ) and adiponectin

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Dieuwertje C E Spaanderman, Mark Nixon, Jacobus C Buurstede, Hetty H C M Sips, Maaike Schilperoort, Eline N Kuipers, Emma A Backer, Sander Kooijman, Patrick C N Rensen, Natalie Z M Homer, Brian R Walker, Onno C Meijer, and Jan Kroon

to ensure whole-body energy homeostasis for example by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, reducing peripheral glucose uptake and inducing adipose tissue lipolysis ( Kadmiel & Cidlowski 2013 ). Due to the pleiotropic nature of glucocorticoid

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Mark A Exley, Laura Hand, Donal O'Shea, and Lydia Lynch

Adipose tissue as an immune organ Immune organs represent sites of exclusive immunological function; however, the definition of an immune tissue has been extended to organs such as the liver ( Doherty & O'Farrelly 2000 ), uterus ( Lynch et al

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Junlan Zhou, Min Cheng, Chan Boriboun, Mariam M Ardehali, Changfei Jiang, Qinghua Liu, Shuling Han, David A Goukassian, Yao-Liang Tang, Ting C Zhao, Ming Zhao, Lu Cai, Stéphane Richard, Raj Kishore, and Gangjian Qin

resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease ( Bornfeldt & Tabas 2011 ). In the body, white adipose tissue (WAT) is a major lipid depot that contains unilocular white adipocytes for storing vast amounts of nutrients as lipids. Brown adipose tissue

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Felipe de Oliveira Franco, Magno Alves Lopes, Felipe dos Santos Henriques, Rodrigo Xavier das Neves, Cesário Bianchi Filho, and Miguel Luiz Batista Jr

loss is the main marker of cachectic syndrome, followed by atrophy of both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue (AT) ( Das et al . 2011 , Batista et al . 2012 , Seelaender & Batista 2014 ). In this regard, several studies have postulated that AT

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Joan Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Marta Giralt, and Francesc Villarroya

Introduction: the evolving research on the BAT secretome In recent years, extensive research has been conducted to elucidate the secretory role of brown adipose tissue (BAT), including its endocrine role. In certain ways, the history of this

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J E Digby, J Chen, J Y Tang, H Lehnert, R N Matthews, and H S Randeva

energy expenditure and metabolic signals regulating the orexin-receptor system ( Beck & Richy 1999 , Wortley et al. 2003 , Karteris et al. 2005 ), there are no data available on the presence of orexin receptors in adipose tissue. We analyzed

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Samira Fargali, Thomas Scherer, Andrew C Shin, Masato Sadahiro, Christoph Buettner, and Stephen R Salton

paraventricular nucleus, innervating parasympathetic and sympathetic preganglionic cells in the brainstem and spinal cord, to form sympathetic circuits that innervate brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose tissue (WAT), liver, and pancreas ( Giordano et al