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Gemma Llauradó, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carme Vilardell, Rafael Simó, Pilar Gil, Albert Cano, Joan Vendrell, and José-Miguel González-Clemente

factors. As a result, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events in type 1 diabetes are not completely understood. Arterial stiffness (AS) is an early sign of arteriosclerosis ( Cavalcante et al . 2011 ) and predicts cardiovascular

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Yasumasa Ikeda, Ken-ichi Aihara, Sumiko Yoshida, Masashi Akaike, and Toshio Matsumoto

et al . 2010 ) and that suppression of testosterone production increases arterial stiffness ( Dockery et al . 2003 ). In addition, testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to improve arterial stiffness in elderly hypogonadal men ( Yaron et al

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Xiaojun Zhou, Jianjun Dong, Li Zhang, Ju Liu, Xiaofeng Dong, Qing Yang, Fupeng Liu, and Lin Liao

ameliorates atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in Apo E −/− mice and rabbits fed a high fat and cholesterol diet . Circulation 129 2403 – 2413 . ( doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.007559 ) Delbin MA Trask AJ 2014 The diabetic vasculature

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Jennifer J DuPont and Iris Z Jaffe

2081 – 2090 . ( doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2013.05.009 ) Palombo C Kozakova M 2016 Arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular risk: Pathophysiologic mechanisms and emerging clinical indications . Vascular Pharmacology 77 1 – 7

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Åsa Tivesten, Anna Barlind, Kenneth Caidahl, Natalia Klintland, Antonio Cittadini, Claes Ohlsson, and Jörgen Isgaard

. 2000 ), arterial stiffness ( Smith et al. 2002 ), endothelial and/or endothelium-independent vasodilation ( Rossoni et al. 1999 , Evans et al. 2000 , Capaldo et al. 2001 ), and may reverse markers of early atherosclerosis ( Pfeifer et al

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Prapawadee Pirompol, Vassana Teekabut, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr, and Jonggonnee Wattanapermpool

is formed. Moreover, the prevalence of using testosterone as an anabolic drug in athletes is a lot higher than DHT. Upon completion of the study, arterial blood pressure was measured and cardiac hypertrophic index was determined. Cross

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Morag J Young and Amanda J Rickard

arterial stiffness, which is also an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A number of recent studies have suggested that VSMC MR play a direct mechanistic role in vascular compliance and thus extra-renal blood pressure control. Mice in which

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Daniel M Kelly and T Hugh Jones

independent negative predictor for developing arterial stiffness, assessed from the peak systolic and end diastolic diameters of the common carotid artery and simultaneous brachial artery blood pressure ( Hougaku et al . 2006 ). This association remained

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John N Stabley, Rhonda D Prisby, Bradley J Behnke, and Michael D Delp

F Landini L Cartoni G Taddei S Ghiadoni L 2012 Type 2 diabetes mellitus worsens arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients through endothelial dysfunction . Diabetologia 55 1847 – 1855 . ( doi:10.1007/s00125

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Sieneke Labruijere, E Leonie A F van Houten, René de Vries, Usha M Musterd-Bagghoe, Ingrid M Garrelds, Piet Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Carlos M Villalón, Jenny A Visser, and Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink

oxidation and thereby prevents the negative effects of LDL. Furthermore, hypertensive, but not normotensive, PCOS women displayed increased arterial stiffness ( Sasaki et al . 2011 ). Taken together, these studies suggest that women with PCOS have impaired