understand the roles of SXR/PXR in the bone tissue more precisely. Our results demonstrated that loss of SXR/PXR enhanced bone resorption and reduced bone formation in the trabecular bones and decreased thickness in the cortical bones. Moreover, these mice
Kotaro Azuma, Stephanie C Casey, Masako Ito, Tomohiko Urano, Kuniko Horie, Yasuyoshi Ouchi, Séverine Kirchner, Bruce Blumberg and Satoshi Inoue
Koichiro Komatsu, Akemi Shimada, Tatsuya Shibata, Satoshi Wada, Hisashi Ideno, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Norio Amizuka, Masaki Noda and Akira Nifuji
-forming cells. N-BPs stimulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts at low concentrations. At high concentrations, N-BPs inhibit proliferation and bone nodule formation ( Giuliani et al . 1998 , Reinholtz et al . 2000 ). It has also been pointed
Kenneth A Philbrick, Carmen P Wong, Adam J Branscum, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec
and total bone mass ( Hamrick et al . 2004 , Ealey et al . 2006 , Gat-Yablonski & Phillip 2008 , Williams et al . 2011 ). At the cellular level, these abnormalities are associated with impaired endochondral ossification, lower bone formation due
Anyonya R Guntur and Clifford J Rosen
Introduction Skeletal tissue in vertebrates develops in two ways, through either intramembranous or endochondral ossification. The former is required for cranial development, while the latter is the mechanism for bone formation in the limb and axial
J M Lean, J W M Chow and T J Chambers
We have recently found that administration of oestradiol-17β (OE2) to rats stimulates trabecular bone formation. It is not known, however, whether oestrogen has a similar action on bone formation rate under physiological circumstances. Oestrogen is known to suppress bone resorption, and oestrogen-deficient states in the rat, as in humans, are associated with an increase in bone resorption that entrains an increase in bone formation. To see if the latter masks a relative reduction in bone formation, due to oestrogen deficiency, we measured bone formation very early after ovariectomy, before the resorption-induced increase in bone formation becomes established. To do this, rats were administered fluorochrome labels before and after ovariectomy, spaced at weekly intervals in the first, and 3-day intervals in the second experiment.
In both experiments there was a decrease in indices of bone formation in the labelling interval immediately following ovariectomy such that, using the shorter fluorochrome intervals, the mineral apposition rate fell to 69%, the double-labelled surface to 45%, and the bone formation rate to 36% of sham-ovariectomized levels. The reduction was not sustained in the subsequent label intervals, presumably masked by the increase in bone formation attributable to increased resorption. These results suggest that if bone formation is assessed before this resorption-entrained increase in bone formation occurs, oestrogen deficiency is associated with a reduction in dynamic indices of bone formation. Thus, these experiments suggest that oestrogen stimulates bone formation under physiological circumstances, and that the osteopaenia that follows oestrogen deficiency may be attributable not only to an increase in bone resorption, but also to a relative deficiency in bone formation.
Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 142, 119–125
J. H. Tobias and T. J. Chambers
While the osteopenia associated with oestrogen deficiency is thought to arise from a relative defect in bone formation with respect to resorption, oestrogen administration itself leads to a decrease, rather than an increase, in bone formation. This decrease in bone formation, which arises from oestrogen's inhibitory effect on bone turnover, presumably masks any underlying tendency of oestrogen treatment towards stimulation of bone formation. To investigate this further, we have examined the early effect of discontinuing the administration of oestradiol-17β (OE2; 40 μg/kg on bone formation indices in ovariectomized 13-week-old rats, before the turnover-induced increase in formation occurs. Histomorphometric indices were assessed at the proximal tibial metaphysis 0, 7, 10, 13 and 16 days following discontinuation of OE2 treatment. Measurements of body weight, uterine weight and longitudinal growth rate confirmed that there were rapid effects of OE2 deficiency on these parameters.
We could detect no significant increase in bone resorption, as measured by osteoclast surface and number, until 16 days after ending treatment with OE2; this was coincidental with a reduction in bone volume. Shorter periods of OE2 deficiency were associated with a marked decrease in bone formation, as assessed by dynamic histomorphometric indices. This inhibition of bone formation was largely due to a reduction in double fluorochrome-labelled trabecular surfaces, which were decreased by approximately 70%. We conclude that ending OE2 administration in ovariectomized rats caused a striking decrease in trabecular bone formation, if such indices are assessed prior to the subsequent turnover-induced increase in formation. This suggests that oestrogen treatment in ovariectomized rats is associated with a stimulatory effect on bone formation, in addition to its recognized anti-resorptive action.
Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 137, 497–503
S Keila, A Kelner and M Weinreb
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) has been shown to exert a bone anabolic effect in young and adult rats. In this study we tested whether it possesses a similar effect on bone formation and bone mass in aging rats. Fifteen-month-old rats were injected daily with either PGE(2) at 5 mg/kg or vehicle for 14 days. PGE(2) treatment stimulated the rate of cancellous bone formation (a approximately 5.5-fold increase in bone formation rate), measured by the incorporation of calcein into bone-forming surfaces at the tibial proximal metaphysis. This effect resulted in increased cancellous bone area (+54%) at the same site. Since PGE(2) treatment resulted in a much higher proportion of bone surface undergoing bone formation and thus lined with osteoblasts, we tested the hypothesis that PGE(2) stimulates osteoblast differentiation from bone marrow precursor cells both in vivo and in vitro. We found that ex vivo cultures of bone marrow stromal cells from rats injected for 2 weeks with PGE(2) at 5 mg/kg per day yielded more ( approximately 4-fold) mineralized nodules and exhibited a greater (by 30-40%) alkaline phosphatase activity compared with cultures from vehicle-injected rats, attesting to a stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation by PGE(2). We also compared the osteogenic capacity of bone marrow from aging (15-month-old) versus young (5-week-old) rats and its regulation by PGE(2) in vitro. Bone marrow stromal cell cultures from aging rats exhibited a greatly diminished osteogenic capacity, reflected in reduced nodule formation ( approximately 6% of young animals) and lower alkaline phosphatase activity ( approximately 60% of young animals). However, these parameters could be stimulated in both groups of animals by incubation with 10-100 nM PGE(2). The magnitude of this stimulation was greater in cultures from aging rats (+550% vs +70% in nodule formation of aging compared with young rats). In conclusion, we demonstrate here that PGE(2) exerts a bone anabolic effect in aging rats, similar to the effect we and others have reported in young, growing rats. The PGE(2)-stimulated bone formation, which augments bone mass, most likely results from recruitment of osteoblasts from their bone marrow stromal precursors.
H Hagiwara, Y Hiruma, A Inoue, A Yamaguchi and S Hirose
We examined the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the differentiation of rat calvarial osteoblastic cells and on the formation of bone by these cells. Northern blotting analysis revealed that Ang II inhibited the expression of mRNA for osteocalcin, which is a protein that is specifically expressed during maturation of osteoblastic cells. Ang II decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, a marker of osteoblastic differentiation, in the cells, acting via the type 1 (AT1) receptor. We used von Kossa staining to examine the formation of mineralized nodules by osteoblastic cells. Both the number and the total area of mineralized nodules were quantified and shown to be decreased by 10(-7) M Ang II. The accumulation of calcium in cells and the matrix layer was also decreased by Ang II. Binding analysis with subtype-specific antagonists revealed the presence of AT1 receptors for Ang II in this culture system. Ang II caused a marked increase in the rate of production of intracellular cAMP in this system. Our data suggest that Ang II might be intimately involved in osteoblastic metabolism through its interaction with the AT1 receptor.
M. C. Slootweg, W. W. Most, E. van Beek, L. P. C. Schot, S. E. Papapoulos and C. W. G. M. Löwik
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a potent stimulator of bone formation. Whether this growth factor also induces bone resorption has not been studied in detail. We used two organ culture systems to examine the direct effect of IGF-I on bone resorption. Fetal mouse radii/ulnae, containing mature osteoclasts, showed no response to IGF-I, indicating that osteoclastic activity is not influenced by IGF-I. Fetal mouse metacarpals/metatarsals, containing just osteoclast precursors and progenitors, showed an increase in resorption in response to IGF-I, indicating that IGF-I stimulates the formulation of osteoclast precursors/progenitors and thereby increases the number of osteoclasts.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been hypothesized to be a mediator of bone resorptive agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH). Both radii/ulnae and metacarpals/metatarsals reacted to IGF-I with an increase in IL-6 production. IL-6 production by UMR-106 osteogenic osteosarcoma cells was positively modulated by IGF-I, indicating that osteoblasts are likely to be the cells responsible for increased IL-6 production by the bones, and that IL-6 might be a mediatory of IGF-I-stimulated bone resorption.
Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 132, 433–438
SU Singh, RF Casper, PC Fritz, B Sukhu, B Ganss, B Girard Jr, JF Savouret and HC Tenenbaum
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands are environmental contaminants found in cigarette smoke and other sources of air pollution. The prototypical compound is TCDD (2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), also known as dioxin. There is an increasing body of knowledge linking cigarette smoking to osteoporosis and periodontal disease, but the direct effects of smoke-associated aryl hydrocarbons on bone are not well understood. Through the use of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a plant antifungal compound that we have recently demonstrated to be a pure AhR antagonist, we have investigated the effects of TCDD on osteogenesis. It was postulated that TCDD would inhibit osteogenesis in bone-forming cultures and that this inhibition would be antagonized by resveratrol. We employed the chicken periosteal osteogenesis (CPO) model, which has been shown to form bone in vitro in a pattern morphologically and biochemically similar to that seen in vivo, as well as a rat stromal cell bone nodule formation model. In the CPO model, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was reduced by up to 50% (P<0.01 vs control) in the presence of 10(-9) M TCDD and these effects were reversed by 10(-6) M resveratrol (P<0.05 vs TCDD alone). TCDD-mediated inhibition of osteogenesis was restricted primarily to the osteoblastic differentiation phase (days 0-2) as later addition did not appear to have any effects. Message levels for important bone-associated proteins (in the CPO model) such as collagen type I, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and AP were inhibited by TCDD, an effect that was antagonized by resveratrol. Similar findings were obtained using the rat stromal bone cell line. TCDD (at concentrations as low as 10(-10)M) caused an approximately 33% reduction in AP activity, which was abrogated by 3. 5x10(-7) M resveratrol. TCDD also induced a marked reduction in mineralization ( approximately 75%) which was completely antagonized by resveratrol. These data suggest that AhR ligands inhibit osteogenesis probably through inhibition of osteodifferentiation and that this effect can be antagonized by resveratrol. Since high levels of AhR ligands are found in cigarette smoke, and further since smoking is an important risk factor in both osteoporosis and periodontal disease, it may be postulated that AhR ligands are the component of cigarette smoke linking smoking to osteoporosis and periodontal disease. If so, resveratrol could prove to be a promising preventive or therapeutic agent for smoking-related bone loss.