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Yusuke Seino, Takashi Miki, Wakako Fujimoto, Eun Young Lee, Yoshihisa Takahashi, Kohtaro Minami, Yutaka Oiso and Susumu Seino

of sweetness in the cephalic phase of insulin secretion ( Berthoud et al . 1980 ). Interestingly, a small but significant increase in insulin secretion was induced by voluntary feeding of carbohydrate only in Kir6.2 −/− mice ( Fig. 1 d). As

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M Okita, A Inui, S Baba and M Kasuga


The secretion of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is regulated by fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations and food intake, in which vagal-cholinergic mechanisms play an important role, especially for the cephalic phase of PP secretion. In this study, we examined whether central cholinergic mechanisms are also important for PP secretion by relaying information in the brain to the vagus nerve and the muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the pancreas.

Atropine sulfate (20–200 μg) was administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle and its effects on the basal secretion of PP as well as the secretions stimulated by insulin-induced hypoglycemia (Actrapid MC, 0·25 U/kg) and a mixed meal (243 kcal) were studied in seven dogs. Intralateral cerebroventricular (ILV) atropine (100 and 200 μg) abolished the fluctuations in basal PP secretion without appearing in the plasma. Pretreatment with 20, 100, and 200 μg ILV atropine significantly decreased the PP response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, with the integrated PP response to 58, 32, and 26% of that of controls respectively. Atropine (100 μg ILV) significantly reduced the postprandial PP secretion in both the cephalic and the gastrointestinal phases, whereas increased insulin and glucose levels were unaffected.

Centrally administered atropine was able to suppress the basal secretion of PP as well as the secretions stimulated by hypoglycemia and food intake. These findings suggest that (1) the spontaneous release of PP is governed by an oscillating, central cholinergic tone, and (2) the stimulating PP secretion is, at least in part, regulated by the central cholinergic system.

Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 154, 311–317

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Hidetada Ogata, Yusuke Seino, Norio Harada, Atsushi Iida, Kazuyo Suzuki, Takako Izumoto, Kota Ishikawa, Eita Uenishi, Nobuaki Ozaki, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Takashi Miki, Nobuya Inagaki, Shin Tsunekawa, Yoji Hamada, Susumu Seino and Yutaka Oiso

. ( doi:10.1172/JCI45680 ) Seino Y Miki T Fujimoto W Young-Lee E Takahashi Y Minami K Oiso Y Seino S 2013 Cephalic phase insulin secretion is K ATP channel independent . Journal of Endocrinology 218 25 – 33 . ( doi:10.1530/JOE-12

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Anthony Raffo, Kolbe Hancock, Teresa Polito, Yuli Xie, Gordon Andan, Piotr Witkowski, Mark Hardy, Pasquale Barba, Caterina Ferrara, Antonella Maffei, Matthew Freeby, Robin Goland, Rudolph L Leibel, Ian R Sweet and Paul E Harris

function as amplifying agents that have little or no effect by themselves, but enhance the signals generated by the β-cell glucose sensing apparatus ( Henquin 2000 ). For example, during the cephalic phase of insulin release, acetylcholine (ACh) is released

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J D Bailey, J G Berardinelli, T E Rocke and R A Bessen

preganglionics that mediate cephalic phase insulin response . American Journal of Physiology 258 R523 – R530 . Bessen RA Marsh RF 1992 Identification of two biologically distinct strains of transmissible mink encephalopathy in hamsters . Journal of General

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Getu Abraham, Fioralba Demiraj and Fritz Rupert Ungemach

-stimulated cortisol levels as well as for the pharmacokinetic analysis of both substances, blood samples were usually collected at 0800 h from the cephalic vein by venipuncture in EDTA-containing tubes (Sarstedt, Hamburg, Germany). Plasma samples were obtained after

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Liping Luo and Meilian Liu

tissue lipoprotein lipase to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion . Diabetes 48 452 – 459 . ( doi:10.2337/diabetes.48.3.452 ) Pisani DF Beranger GE Corinus A Giroud M Ghandour RA Altirriba J Chambard JC Mazure NM

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João A B Pedroso, Pedro O R de Mendonca, Marco A S Fortes, Igor Tomaz, Vitor L Pecorali, Thais B Auricino, Ismael C Costa, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Debora N Bueno, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Claudimara F P Lotfi and Jose Donato Jr

hypothalamic syndrome, satiety, and a cephalic phase hypothesis . Psychology Review 84 89 – 126 . ( doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.1.89 ) 10.1037/0033-295X.84.1.89 Roberts AW Robb L Rakar S Hartley L Cluse L Nicola NA Metcalf D

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Siân E Piret and Rajesh V Thakker

, multiple endocrine neoplasia; Rip, rat insulin promoter; Pdx1, pancreas and duodenal homeobox 1; PTH, parathyroid hormone; Pax3, paired box 3; RET, rearranged during translocation; MTC, medullary thyroid carcinoma; ER, oestrogen responsive; CNS, central