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Linda Ahlkvist, Bilal Omar, Anders Valeur, Keld Fosgerau and Bo Ahrén

, our results show that a direct β-cell effect also contributes to impaired β-cell function during chronic GCGR activation. This does not exclude that an indirect effect may also contribute. Thus, it has previously been shown that glucagon increases the

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Benjamin J Lamont and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

. ( doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.3374 ) Gier B Matveyenko AV Kirakossian D Dawson D Dry SM Butler PC 2012 Chronic GLP-1 receptor activation by exendin-4 induces expansion of pancreatic duct glands in rats and accelerates formation of

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Maureen J Charron and Patricia M Vuguin

, glucagon maintains blood glucose levels by activating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition, glucagon reduces triglyceride, very LDL release, and cholesterol levels and stimulates fatty acid oxidation ( Eaton 1973 , Longuet et al . 2008

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L M McShane, N Irwin, D O’Flynn, Z J Franklin, C M Hewage and F P M O’Harte

glucagon receptor action. Indeed, this peptide analog induced significant improvements in metabolic control following a chronic dosing regimen in diet-induced obese (DIO) as well as ob/ob diabetic mice ( O’Harte et al . 2014 ). Importantly, we did not

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Ivan Quesada, Eva Tudurí, Cristina Ripoll and Ángel Nadal

addition to insulin, glucagon or somatostatin, secretory granules from islet cells contain other molecules with biological activity, which are released to the extracellular space by exocytosis, activating surface receptors in the same cell, in neighbouring

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Sihan Lv, Xinchen Qiu, Jian Li, Jinye Liang, Weida Li, Chao Zhang, Zhen-Ning Zhang and Bing Luan

ad libitum mice; # P  < 0.05 compared with 12 h fasted mice, n  = 8). Intracellular and extracellular cAMP stimulates gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, respectively Binding of glucagon to its receptor leads to the activation

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Jennifer H Stern, Gordon I Smith, Shiuwei Chen, Roger H Unger, Samuel Klein and Philipp E Scherer

, Kostic et al. 2018 ), in hyperinsulinemic/insulin-resistant mice ( Lee et al. 2014 ), and in insulin-deficient type 1 diabetic mice ( Lee et al. 2011 , Rivero-Gutierrez et al. 2018 ). Incretin therapies, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor

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Wanbao Yang, Hui Yan, Quan Pan, James Zheng Shen, Fenghua Zhou, Chaodong Wu, Yuxiang Sun and Shaodong Guo

glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis ( Jiang et al. 2003 ). However, the glucagon concentration or the ratio of glucagon to insulin is elevated in both type I and II diabetes mellitus, including animals and humans ( Unger et al. 1978 ). Chronic

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Antonella Amato, Sara Baldassano and Flavia Mulè

activation of GLP-2 receptors on vagal afferents in the rat . Endocrinology 148 1954 – 1962 . ( doi:10.1210/en.2006-1232 ) Nelson DW Murali SG Liu X Koopmann MC Holst JJ Ney DM 2008 Insulin-like growth factor I and glucagon

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Alessandro Pocai

the gut. The distribution of glucagon-related peptides in the human gastrointestinal mucosa was later described by Baldissera & Holst (1984) . Receptors and post-receptor pathways activated by OXM OXM binds to and is a full ∼ equipotent agonist of the