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Karsten Suhre

body, as they are revealed by studies of metabolic profiling in diabetes ( German et al . 2005 , Wenk 2005 ). Application of metabolomics approaches to metabolic disorders, especially diabetes, is particularly promising since deregulations of

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Haiyong Chen, Hui-Yao Lan, Dimitrios H Roukos and William C Cho

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 347 million people worldwide. The World Health Organization predicts that diabetes-related deaths could double between 2005 and 2030. The research conducted by American Diabetes Association estimated that

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Elizabeth S Barrie, Mels Lodder, Paul H Weinreb, Jill Buss, Amer Rajab, Christopher Adin, Qing-Sheng Mi and Gregg A Hadley

Introduction Type 1 diabetes is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, resulting in a hyperglycemic state. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice (NOD

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Johan G Eriksson

Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major, rapidly increasing global public health challenge. The number of adults with diabetes is estimated to have increased from 108 to 422 million between 1980 and 2014 making it one of the fastest

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Che-Pei Kung and Maureen E Murphy

diabetes. Structure and function of the p53 tumor-suppressor protein p53 protein is made of 393 amino acids and uses a zinc-coordinated DNA-binding domain to bind in a sequence-specific manner to DNA consensus elements that contain two copies of the

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Richard W Nelson and Claudia E Reusch

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder in dogs and cats, with a reported hospital prevalence rate of ∼0.4–1.2%. Classic clinical signs of diabetes include polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss. Clinical signs do not develop

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Hao Wu, Junduo Wu, Shengzhu Zhou, Wenlin Huang, Ying Li, Huan Zhang, Junnan Wang and Ye Jia

Introduction Macrovascular complications develop in >50% of the diabetic patients and result in high mortality ( King & Wakasaki 1999 , Forbes et al . 2004 ). Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM

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John N Stabley, Rhonda D Prisby, Bradley J Behnke and Michael D Delp

Introduction The increase in fracture risk observed among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been suggested to be associated with corollaries of the disease, such as peripheral neuropathy, decreased physical fitness, vision loss, and

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Wang-Yang Xu, Yan Shen, Houbao Zhu, Junhui Gao, Chen Zhang, Lingyun Tang, Shun-Yuan Lu, Chun-Ling Shen, Hong-Xin Zhang, Ziwei Li, Peng Meng, Ying-Han Wan, Jian Fei and Zhu-Gang Wang

adipocytes makes β3AR-based lipolysis and thermogenesis become a new therapeutic strategy against obesity and diabetes. 2-AAA is a potential regulator of glucose homeostasis, which is higher in T2D patients and considered to be a biomarker for T2D mellitus

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Mohammed Bensellam, Jean-Christophe Jonas and D Ross Laybutt

animal and human studies suggest that mature β-cells could regress backwards to a precursor-like stage and/or transdifferentiate into other islet cells in type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, cellular differentiation is not unidirectional. Indeed