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Daniele Leão Ignacio, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato, Diego Silvestre, Leonardo Matta, Andressa Lima de Vansconcelos, Denise Pires Carvalho, Antonio Galina, João Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, and João Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque

and could explain the fat gain observed in this model. Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological approach to treat metabolic diseases ( Colberg et al. 2010 ). Exercise-induced adaptations slow down age-related muscle-function decline, including

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Amanda J Genders, Jujiao Kuang, Evelyn C Marin, Nicholas J Saner, Javier Botella, Macsue Jacques, Glenn K McConell, Victor A Andrade-Souza, Javier Chagolla, and David J Bishop

interventions that cause whole-body insulin resistance (e.g. HFD) also decrease mitochondrial respiration, using techniques that assess mitochondrial respiratory function in situ . Several studies have shown that exercise can reverse various aspects of the

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Brenton T Laing, Khoa Do, Tomoko Matsubara, David W Wert, Michael J Avery, Erin M Langdon, Donghai Zheng, and Hu Huang

preferentially affects POMC neurons in the ARC. This suggests that POMC neurons are the target and part of the mechanism of HFD-induced obesity and diabetes ( Li et al. 2012 ). Exercise therapy is a proven and effective clinical intervention for treating

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Jay W Porter, Joe L Rowles III, Justin A Fletcher, Terese M Zidon, Nathan C Winn, Leighton T McCabe, Young-Min Park, James W Perfield II, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, and Victoria J Vieira-Potter

endocrine organ that is profoundly affected by exercise. Exercise lessens WAT inflammation and improves systemic metabolic health, even in the settings of obesity ( Vieira et al . 2009 a , Welly et al . 2016 ), although the mechanisms are not fully

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Hiroharu Mifune, Yuji Tajiri, Yusuke Sakai, Yukie Kawahara, Kento Hara, Takahiro Sato, Yoshihiro Nishi, Akinori Nishi, Ryouichi Mitsuzono, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, and Masayasu Kojima

Introduction It is well known that exercise in itself has several benefits in terms of health and fitness ( Patterson & Levin 2008 , Haskell-Luevano et al. 2009 ), as well as neural and cognitive effects ( Cotman & Engesser-Cesar 2002 ), in

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Hyo Youl Moon, Parkyong Song, Cheol Soo Choi, Sung Ho Ryu, and Pann-Ghill Suh

is regulated by lifestyle modifications that aim to increase physical activity, induce weight reduction, and decrease energy intake ( Farrell & Larter 2006 ). Exercise is accompanied by metabolic adaptations that promote the delivery to, and oxidation

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Chunxia Yu, Sujuan Liu, Liqin Chen, Jun Shen, Yanmei Niu, Tianyi Wang, Wanqi Zhang, and Li Fu

ecosystem development and its stability can be influenced by an existing dynamic balance between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that in turn can impact host health, such as diet and exercise ( Monda et al. 2017 ). Food is the substrate for the growth of

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Taylor Landry, Daniel Shookster, Alec Chaves, Katrina Free, Tony Nguyen, and Hu Huang

Introduction The effects of exercise on food intake have been studied extensively, yet the reasons for frequently conflicting results are still incompletely understood ( Durrant et al. 1982 , Staten 1991 , King et al. 1996 , Pomerleau

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Hari K Somineni, Gregory P Boivin, and Khalid M Elased

). Retrospective clinical trials validated exercise training as an important non-pharmacological strategy to prevent diabetes and obesity ( Pan et al . 1997 ). The American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend

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Manuela Elsen, Silja Raschke, and Jürgen Eckel

after physical activity, it gained huge interest as a potential mediator of the health-promoting effects of physical exercise. Irisin is a 112 amino acid peptide cleaved from fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5), a type I membrane