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Jennifer H Stern Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA

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Gordon I Smith Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA

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Shiuwei Chen Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA

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Roger H Unger Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA

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Samuel Klein Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA

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Philipp E Scherer Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA

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either glucagon or insulin alone ( Glinsmann & Mortimore 1968 , Mackrell & Sokal 1969 ). Normally, the glucagon:insulin ratio increases during fasting, leading to a predominant glucagon signal, which increases hepatic intracellular concentrations of the

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Aline Cordeiro
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Luana Lopes de Souza
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Lorraine Soares Oliveira
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Larissa Costa Faustino
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Letícia Aragão Santiago
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Flavia Fonseca Bloise
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Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho
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Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida Biophysics Institute Carlos Chagas Filho, Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária - Ilha do Fundão, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Bloco G, CEP: 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura
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. 2008 ). These punctual contributions are extremely valuable to understand the essential role of SIRT1 in adaptation to calorie restriction and fasting, conditions that are able to trigger SIRT1 protein expression in various tissues ( Cohen et al . 2004

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Eva B Nygaard Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark

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Cathrine Ørskov Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Thomas Almdal Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Henrik Vestergaard NNF-CBMR, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Birgitte Andersen Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark

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diabetes and obesity as reviewed in ( Kharitonenkov & Adams 2014 , Sonoda et al . 2017 ). However, the physiological role of FGF21 is still not fully understood. In mice, plasma FGF21 has been found to be increased in response to fasting ( Inagaki et

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F Aréchiga-Ceballos Neurofisiología Molecular, Escuela de Dietética y Nutrición, Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (INPRFM), Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, C.P. 14370, México, Distrito Federal, México
Neurofisiología Molecular, Escuela de Dietética y Nutrición, Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (INPRFM), Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, C.P. 14370, México, Distrito Federal, México

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E Alvarez-Salas Neurofisiología Molecular, Escuela de Dietética y Nutrición, Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (INPRFM), Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, C.P. 14370, México, Distrito Federal, México

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G Matamoros-Trejo Neurofisiología Molecular, Escuela de Dietética y Nutrición, Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (INPRFM), Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, C.P. 14370, México, Distrito Federal, México

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M I Amaya Neurofisiología Molecular, Escuela de Dietética y Nutrición, Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (INPRFM), Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, C.P. 14370, México, Distrito Federal, México

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C García-Luna Neurofisiología Molecular, Escuela de Dietética y Nutrición, Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (INPRFM), Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, C.P. 14370, México, Distrito Federal, México

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P de Gortari Neurofisiología Molecular, Escuela de Dietética y Nutrición, Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (INPRFM), Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, C.P. 14370, México, Distrito Federal, México

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pro-corticotropin-releasing factor (proCRF), which regulate the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axes. This responsiveness was assessed after the known 48 h fasting-induced shift in leptin and corticosterone

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Anna H Kongsted
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Sanne V Husted
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Malin P Thygesen Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Cook Medical Europe APS, School of Animal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Department of Animal Science, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Vibeke G Christensen
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Dominique Blache Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Cook Medical Europe APS, School of Animal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Department of Animal Science, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Tolver Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Cook Medical Europe APS, School of Animal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Department of Animal Science, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Torben Larsen Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Cook Medical Europe APS, School of Animal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Department of Animal Science, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Bjørn Quistorff Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Cook Medical Europe APS, School of Animal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Department of Animal Science, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Mette O Nielsen
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-gestation undernutrition on metabolic and endocrine plasticity can be assessed relatively early in life (adolescence) by exposure to challenges reflecting stressful conditions (adrenalin tolerance test) with scarcity of feed (fasting) requiring hepatic gluconeogenesis

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N Govoni Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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R De Iasio Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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C Cocco Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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A Parmeggiani Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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G Galeati Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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U Pagotto Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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C Brancia Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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M Spinaci Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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C Tamanini Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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R Pasquali Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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G-L Ferri Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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E Seren Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Endocrinology Unit and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Sant’ Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40100 Bologna (BO), Italy
NEF-Laboratory, Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari at Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy

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of oxyntic glands in various farm animals, and abundant in cardiac and pyloric glands in swine ( Hayashida et al. 2001 ). Circulating ghrelin levels depend on acute and chronic changes in energy balance, fasting increasing and feeding decreasing its

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Tiffany K Miles Department of Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

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Ana Rita Silva Moreira Department of Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

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Melody L Allensworth-James Department of Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

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Angela K Odle Department of Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

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Anessa C Haney Department of Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

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Angus M MacNicol Department of Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

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Melanie C MacNicol Department of Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

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Gwen V Childs Department of Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

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prolonged fasting, can result in stunted growth in children under 5, anemia in women of reproductive age and adults who are underweight ( Fanzo et al. 2018 ). Leptin and ghrelin are two major metabolic signals of energy homeostasis. Leptin is secreted by

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Claudia E Robert-Cooperman
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Grace C Dougan Department of Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, BSF 206, Tampa, Florida 33620, USA

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Shari L Moak
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Mark G Athanason
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Melanie N Kuehl
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Harris Bell-Temin
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Stanley M Stevens Jr
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Brant R Burkhardt
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delivery. This model revealed fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and elevated corticosterone levels. Li et al . (2011) derived a similar adenoviral-delivered overexpressing model with different results, and did not observe glucose intolerance

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Matthew J VandeKopple Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Jinghai Wu Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Lisa A Baer Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Naresh C Bal Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Santosh K Maurya Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Anuradha Kalyanasundaram Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Muthu Periasamy Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Kristin I Stanford Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Amato J Giaccia Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

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Nicholas C Denko Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Ioanna Papandreou Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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tissue chemistry To test for glucose tolerance, mice were fasted overnight and 2 g/kg glucose in saline was injected intraperitoneally. Blood was drawn from the tail at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min and tested with a ReliOn Ultima glucose meter (Walmart

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E M de Vries Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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H C van Beeren Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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M T Ackermans Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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A Kalsbeek Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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E Fliers Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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A Boelen Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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( Boelen et al . 2006 ). Whether NTIS is an adaptive or maladaptive response is still a matter of debate. Fasting leads to a central downregulation of the HPT axis, characterized by increased type 2 deiodinase expression in hypothalamic tanycytes which

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