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Brittany M Duggan Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Daniel M Marko Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Raveen Muzaffar Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Darryl Y Chan Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Jonathan D Schertzer Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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et al. 2009 ). The purpose of this review is to highlight how SMKIs that are often designed for cancer treatment can alter blood glucose and insulin. We apologize that not all relevant literature could be included in this review. We selected specific

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Binbin Guan Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China
Department of Endocrinology, FuJian Union hospital, Fuzhou, P R China

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Wenyi Li Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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Fengying Li Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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Yun Xie Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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Qicheng Ni Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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Yanyun Gu Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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Xiaoying Li Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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Qidi Wang Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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Hongli Zhang Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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Guang Ning Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P R China

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is crucial for the development of specific drug treatments for type 2 diabetes. Several mitogens have been implicated in β-cell proliferation, including glucose, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), placental lactogens (PL), prolactin (PRL

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Zengmin Wang Department of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, PR China
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

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Gail J Mick Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

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Rongrong Xie Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
Department of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, PR China

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Xudong Wang Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

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Xuemei Xie Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

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Guimei Li Department of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, PR China

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Kenneth L McCormick Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

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Introduction Circulating adrenal-derived cortisol, which generated intracellularly from cortisone in various tissues, contributes to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. Only the active 11-hydroxy derivatives (cortisol and corticosterone), and

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Kunihisa Hamano Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan
Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Yuko Nakagawa Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Yoshiaki Ohtsu Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Longfei Li Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Johan Medina Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Yuji Tanaka Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Katsuyoshi Masuda Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Mitsuhisa Komatsu Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Itaru Kojima Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Department of General Medicine, Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

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Introduction Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells and modulates the effects of incretins and acetylcholine ( Ashcroft & Rorsman 1989 , Rasmussen et al . 1990 , Rorsman 1997 , Newsholme et al . 2014 ). We

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Stephan Pinheiro Frankenfeld Laboratory of Molecular Radiobiology, Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Laboratory of Exercise Biology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, CCS

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Leonardo Pires de Oliveira Laboratory of Molecular Radiobiology, Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Laboratory of Exercise Biology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, CCS

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Daniele Leão Ignacio Laboratory of Molecular Radiobiology, Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Laboratory of Exercise Biology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, CCS

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Raquel Guimarães Coelho Laboratory of Molecular Radiobiology, Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Laboratory of Exercise Biology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, CCS

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Mariana Nigro Mattos Laboratory of Molecular Radiobiology, Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Laboratory of Exercise Biology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, CCS

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Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira Laboratory of Molecular Radiobiology, Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Laboratory of Exercise Biology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, CCS

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Denise Pires Carvalho Laboratory of Molecular Radiobiology, Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Laboratory of Exercise Biology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, CCS

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Rodrigo Soares Fortunato Laboratory of Molecular Radiobiology, Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Laboratory of Exercise Biology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, CCS

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glucose metabolism, the effects of supraphysiological doses (SDs) of anabolic–androgenic steroids on glucose metabolism are scarce. It is well-known that women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, who have hyperandrogenism, might present hyperinsulinemia with

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Mercedes Lombarte
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Brenda L Fina
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Maela Lupo
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Marília A Buzalaf Bone Biology Laboratory, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas Bioquímica, School of Medicine, Rosario National University, Rosario, Santa Fe 3100, Argentina

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Alfredo Rigalli
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world ( Trivedi et al . 1993 ) where fluoride content in drinking water is higher than that recommended by the WHO. Conversely, physical activity improves the effect of insulin on target tissues. Physical activity increases glucose uptake by muscle

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Manami Oya
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Tetsuya Kitaguchi Department of Life Sciences, Cell Signaling Group, Organization for University Research Initiatives, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3‐8‐1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
Department of Life Sciences, Cell Signaling Group, Organization for University Research Initiatives, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3‐8‐1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan

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Kazuki Harada
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Rika Numano Department of Life Sciences, Cell Signaling Group, Organization for University Research Initiatives, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3‐8‐1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan

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Takahiro Sato Department of Life Sciences, Cell Signaling Group, Organization for University Research Initiatives, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3‐8‐1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan

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Masayasu Kojima Department of Life Sciences, Cell Signaling Group, Organization for University Research Initiatives, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3‐8‐1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan

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Takashi Tsuboi
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arise from nutrient sensing and absorption in the intestine. In fact, in support of this view, recent studies have shown that nutrients (i.e., fatty acids and glucose) and hormones (i.e., insulin and oxytocin) regulate ghrelin secretion in fluorescence

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Nicole G Barra Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Fernando F Anhê Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Joseph F Cavallari Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Anita M Singh Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Darryl Y Chan Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Jonathan D Schertzer Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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function of the microbiota, which relay signals that impact host metabolism and metabolic disease like obesity. Uncovering the complex relationship between diet, gut bacteria, and host metabolism may reveal aspects of how obesity worsens blood glucose

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Antonio Gázquez Department of Physiology, CEIR Campus Mare Nostrum, University of Murcia, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia, Murcia, Spain

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Francisca Rodríguez Department of Physiology, CEIR Campus Mare Nostrum, University of Murcia, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia, Murcia, Spain

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María Sánchez-Campillo Department of Physiology, CEIR Campus Mare Nostrum, University of Murcia, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia, Murcia, Spain

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Lidia E Martínez-Gascón Department of Clinical Analysis, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia, Santa Lucia General University Hospital, Murcia, Spain

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Marino B Arnao Department of Plant Biology (Plant Physiology), University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain

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Pedro Saura-Garre Department of Clinical Psychology, University Clinical Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain

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María D Albaladejo-Otón Department of Clinical Analysis, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia, Santa Lucia General University Hospital, Murcia, Spain

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Elvira Larqué Department of Physiology, CEIR Campus Mare Nostrum, University of Murcia, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia, Murcia, Spain

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insulin (Novo Nordisk) every morning in order to maintain glycaemia values of mothers between 100 and 400 mg/mL. The units of insulin administered to pregnant rats varied depending on daily glucose values but were similar in both GDM and GDM + ADI groups

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Victoria Diedrich Institute of Neurobiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

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Elena Haugg Institute of Neurobiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

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Carola Dreier Institute of Neurobiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

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Annika Herwig Institute of Neurobiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

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proximate signal that decides whether an animal enters torpor on a particular day remains unknown. In the following, we summarize the current state of knowledge about two potential regulatory factors, namely thyroid hormones and glucose, in photoperiodic

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