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Ismael González-García, Pablo B Martínez de Morentin, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Cristina Contreras, Amparo Romero-Picó, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Sulay Tovar, and Miguel López

, Simonian & Herbison 1997 , Voisin et al. 1997 , Osterlund et al. 1998 , Merchenthaler et al. 2004 ). Recent evidence has shown that E2 has a nucleus-specific action in the hypothalamus to modulate energy homeostasis, particularly within the ARC and

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Fazal Wahab, Ikram Ullah Khan, Ignacio Rodriguez Polo, Hira Zubair, Charis Drummer, Muhammad Shahab, and Rüdiger Behr

Introduction The gonadal function is controlled by a complex interaction of regulatory signals, involving hypothalamus, pituitary and the gonads themselves. Altogether, they form the reproductive axis (a.k.a. the hypothalamic

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Taylor Landry, Daniel Shookster, Alec Chaves, Katrina Free, Tony Nguyen, and Hu Huang

hypothalamus have demonstrated that females have increased satiety-inducing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC ARC ) neurons ( Nohara et al. 2011 ), reduced hunger-inducing neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression ( Urban et al. 1993 ), decreased sensitivity to central

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Christophe Breton

later in life. Thus, the perinatal perturbation of foetus/neonate nutrient supply has been proposed to be a key determinant, especially the degree of mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environments ( Gluckman et al . 2008 ). The hypothalamus

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William L Dees, Jill K Hiney, and Vinod K Srivastava

Introduction The time at which puberty begins is the culmination of a series of events within the hypothalamus that results in the increased pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion. This change in LHRH

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Christopher J Scott, Jessica L Rose, Allan J Gunn, and Briony M McGrath

gonadotrophin, luteinising hormone (LH), then acts as an amplifier to the GnRH signal ( Clarke & Cummins 1982 ). In sheep, at least, the neurons that produce GnRH receive relatively little synaptic input compared to other neurons within the hypothalamus ( Lehman

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Pryscila D S Teixeira, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Mariana Rosolen Tavares, Frederick Wasinski, Renata Frazao, and Jose Donato Jr

studies have shown that leptin action is required for the formation of the axonal projections that extend from ARH neurons to important second-order neurons, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) ( Bouret et al. 2004 a, b

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Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongyin Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, and Xiaoqiu Xiao

those from citrate buffer (CB)-treated euglycemic fathers (CB-O). Our aim was to determine the impact of a paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic homeostasis of adult offspring, with particular focus on analysis of changes in hypothalamus-mediated food

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Ernane Torres Uchoa, Paula Beatriz Marangon, Rodrigo Rorato, Silvia Graciela Ruginsk, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, and Lucila L K Elias

regulation of food intake, as evidenced by increases in the expression of the anorexigenic neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor ( Crf ) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) ( Uchoa et al. 2010 ) and reduction in the expression of

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Yirui He, Cheng Zhang, Yong Luo, Jinhua Chen, Mengliu Yang, Ling Li, Harvest F Gu, Gangyi Yang, and Xianxiang Zhang

CNS, particularly the hypothalamus, plays a key role in modulating insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis in vivo ( Knight et al. 2011 , Purkayastha et al. 2011 , Yang et al. 2012 ). Furthermore, changes in the levels of some nutrients