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Linda Ahlkvist, Bilal Omar, Anders Valeur, Keld Fosgerau and Bo Ahrén

Introduction Islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes is bi-hormonal involving both defective insulin secretion and augmented glucagon secretion ( Unger & Orci 1975 ), the latter resulting in chronic elevation of circulating glucagon levels ( Larsson

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Philip Newsholme, Vinicius Cruzat, Frank Arfuso and Kevin Keane

by the release of the pancreatic hormones insulin and glucagon. These hormones target metabolically active tissues such as muscle, adipose tissue and liver in order to maintain blood glucose concentration within narrow limits (∼4.0–6.0 mmol

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Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, Renata dos Santos Silva, Vanessa Uemura da Fonseca, Rafael Magdanelo Leandro, Thiago Senna Di Vincenzo, Ana Bárbara Alves-Wagner, Ubiratan Fabres Machado and Paula de Carvalho Papa

rapidly regulated by insulin ( Uldry & Thorens 2004 ). In CL of dogs, our group has demonstrated a differential expression of glucose transporter 1 ( SLC2A1 /GLUT1), which accompanied hypoxia during the cycle ( Papa et al . 2014 ), pointing out that the

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Sujith Rajan, Kripa Shankar, Muheeb Beg, Salil Varshney, Abhishek Gupta, Ankita Srivastava, Durgesh Kumar, Raj K Mishra, Zakir Hussain, Jiaur R Gayen and Anil N Gaikwad

2015). Obesity is defined as excess accumulation of body fat or adipose tissue and is considered to be the antecedent of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, etc. ( Ye

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Bee K Tan, Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Joseph Paul O'Hare and Harpal S Randeva

Introduction Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and serious cardiovascular sequelae ( Eckel et al . 2005 ). Adipose tissue produces cytokines termed

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Rafaela Fadoni Alponti, Patricia Lucio Alves and Paulo Flavio Silveira

Introduction EC 3.4.11.3 protein (IRAP, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase), also known as vp165, GP160 ( Keller 2004 ), placental leucine aminopeptidase (AP) ( Mizutani et al . 2011 ), cystyl AP, oxytocinase ( Rogi et al . 1996 ), and angiotensin

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F J Steyn, T Y Xie, L Huang, S T Ngo, J D Veldhuis, M J Waters and C Chen

of leptin, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), and glucose in mice. Measures were collected from mice maintained on a standard diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Correlation analyses confirmed an inverse relationship between measures of

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A Edlund, M Barghouth, M Hühn, M Abels, J S E Esguerra, I G Mollet, E Svedin, A Wendt, E Renström, E Zhang, N Wierup, B J Scholte, M Flodström-Tullberg and L Eliasson

depending on the age-group studied 30–50% of the adult patients have CFRD ( Brennan et al. 2004 , Dobson et al. 2004 , de Valk & van der Graaf 2007 ). Deficient insulin secretion, beta cell dysfunction and various degrees of insulin resistance

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Min Joo Kim, Se Hee Min, Seon Young Shin, Mi Na Kim, Hakmo Lee, Jin Young Jang, Sun-Whe Kim, Kyong Soo Park and Hye Seung Jung

-associated degradation (ERAD). The UPR helps to maintain cellular homeostasis, but too much UPR can be harmful to cells ( Kaufman 2002 ). Pancreatic β cells are considered to be under high ER stress, because a large amount of insulin is synthesized and processed in the

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T Takahashi, K Sato, S Kato, T Yonezawa, Y Kobayashi, Y Ohtani, S Ohwada, H Aso, T Yamaguchi, S G Roh and K Katoh

orexigenic effect in sheep ( Iqbal et al . 2006 ). In contrast, a high dose (1 mg/sheep) of peripheral ghrelin, administered by injection, promotes feeding behavior in sheep ( Grouselle et al . 2008 ). In addition, ghrelin stimulates insulin secretion in