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Tsun-Jui Liu, Hui-Chin Lai, Chih-Tai Ting and Ping H Wang

Introduction Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin are part of the complex regulatory mechanisms that help to maintain normal myocardial function ( Abel 2004 , Saetrum & Wang 2005 ). Signaling pathways of IGF-I receptor

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J Ogino, K Sakurai, K Yoshiwara, Yoichi Suzuki, N Ishizuka, N Seki, Yoshifumi Suzuki, H Koseki, T Shirasawa, N Hashimoto, K Yagui and Y Saito

insulin resistance occurred ( Lingohr et al. 2002 a ). It has been clinically reported that mutation of the insulin receptor (IR) gene causes various forms of insulin resistance, such as overt diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or normal glucose

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Cathy A Guo and Shaodong Guo

; TCA, tricarboxylic acid. Control of cardiac homeostasis by IRS-1 and IRS-2 The metabolic control by insulin is tightly coupled to the insulin signaling cascade ( Fig. 2 ). Over the past a few years, creation of insulin receptor

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M N Hodgkin, C E Hills and P E Squires

long argued that close cell-to-cell contact improves the functional responsiveness of cells and augments insulin secretion ( Hauge-Evans et al . 1999 ). Activation of the CaR using receptor-specific calcimimetics (reviewed in Trivedi et al . 2008

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Linda Ahlkvist, Bilal Omar, Anders Valeur, Keld Fosgerau and Bo Ahrén

-cells, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was enhanced ( Omar et al . 2014 ). This is compatible with a conclusion of a reduced receptor sensitization explaining the impaired insulin secretion by chronic GCGR activation. Interestingly, the impaired insulin

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Karolina Bäck, Rakibul Islam, Git S Johansson, Simona I Chisalita and Hans J Arnqvist

. 2010 ). Furthermore, insulin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing adhesion molecules and NF-κB ( Dandona et al . 2009 ). Insulin and IGF1 mediate their effects by binding to their cognate cell surface receptors: the insulin

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Aoife Kiely, Aisling Robinson, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt and Philip Newsholme

innate immune product receptors, e.g. TLRs, in insulin resistance has been recently published ( Tsukumo et al . 2007 ). Notably type 2 diabetes has been associated with chronic low-grade inflammation ( Creely et al . 2007 ) in addition to the well

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Yan-Hong Bu, Yu-Ling He, Hou-De Zhou, Wei Liu, Dan Peng, Ai-Guo Tang, Ling-Li Tang, Hui Xie, Qiu-Xia Huang, Xiang-Hang Luo and Er-Yuan Liao

Introduction Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are essential for receptor tyrosine kinases, such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors, as well as other cytokines affecting cellular function ( Burks & White 2001 ). Following

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Marina C Muñoz, Jorge F Giani, Marcos A Mayer, Jorge E Toblli, Daniel Turyn and Fernando P Dominici

Introduction The insulin receptor (IR) is a tetrameric protein composed of two extracellular α-subunits that bind insulin linked by disulfide bonds to two transmembrane β-subunits that have intracellular tyrosine kinase activity ( White & Kahn 1994

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Dario A Gutierrez and Alyssa H Hasty

Introduction Accumulation of inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue (AT) during obesity has been shown to correlate with AT inflammation and subsequent insulin resistance (IR; Weisberg et al . 2003 , Xu et al . 2003 ). In addition, the