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Muraly Puttabyatappa, Robert M Sargis, and Vasantha Padmanabhan

Introduction Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of many metabolic disorders, including the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

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Kok Lim Kua, Shanming Hu, Chunlin Wang, Jianrong Yao, Diana Dang, Alexander B Sawatzke, Jeffrey L Segar, Kai Wang, and Andrew W Norris

Introduction Offspring born from pregnancy complicated by diabetes have a lifelong increased risk of insulin resistance. In humans, such offspring have a 4- to 8-fold higher risk, beyond genetic risk, to develop type 2 diabetes, metabolic

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Jiean Xu, Qiuhua Yang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zhiping Liu, Yapeng Cao, Lina Wang, Yaqi Zhou, Xianqiu Zeng, Qian Ma, Yiming Xu, Yong Wang, Lei Huang, Zhen Han, Tao Wang, David Stepp, Zsolt Bagi, Chaodong Wu, Mei Hong, and Yuqing Huo

resistance-associated metabolic perturbations. Accumulating evidence highlights a critical role for adenosine signaling in the development of insulin resistance ( Antonioli et al. 2015 , Pardo et al. 2017 ). Adenosine signaling is also closely

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Nigel Turner, Gregory J Cooney, Edward W Kraegen, and Clinton R Bruce

(obesity) and reduced insulin action (insulin resistance) in muscle, this article will deal with FAs as an alternative energy substrate to glucose, the relevance of this substrate competition to overall energy expenditure and an assessment of the various

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Mohamed Asrih and François R Jornayvaz

, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, suggesting that NAFLD might be considered as the liver manifestation of the metabolic syndrome ( Marchesini et al . 2001 , Adams et al . 2005 ). The metabolic syndrome is a leading cause of mortality

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Sandra Pereira, Anu Shah, I George Fantus, Jamie W Joseph, and Adria Giacca

Introduction Obesity is associated with elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and FFAs cause insulin resistance ( Lewis et al . 2002 , Xiao et al . 2008 ). FFAs induce oxidative stress ( Nakamura et al . 2009 , Yuzefovych et al . 2010

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Lidong Zhai and Joseph L Messina

Introduction Acute insulin resistance is common following trauma, hemorrhage, sepsis, burn, and critical illness ( Ikezu et al . 1997 , Carter 1998 , Van den Berghe et al . 2001 , Cree & Wolfe 2008 ). Chronic insulin resistant states, such as

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Claudia E Robert-Cooperman, Grace C Dougan, Shari L Moak, Mark G Athanason, Melanie N Kuehl, Harris Bell-Temin, Stanley M Stevens Jr, and Brant R Burkhardt

. 2 A. The difference in fasting glycemia was diminished over time due to WT group (6 months of age) having increased glucose levels potentially attributed to age-dependent insulin resistance ( Fig. 2 A). Significantly higher ( P <0.001) glycemic

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Sergio Di Meo, Susanna Iossa, and Paola Venditti

increased the most in obese people, compared with lean ones, is type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a condition resulting from the metabolic changes associated with excess fat. A pivotal role in T2DM development is played by insulin resistance (IR) that is

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Maristela Mitiko Okamoto, Gabriel Forato Anhê, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Milano Felipe dos Santos Ferreira Marques, Helayne Soares Freitas, Rosana Cristina Tieko Mori, Karla Fabiana S Melo, and Ubiratan Fabres Machado

resistance is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; Björnholm & Zierath 2005 ). In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), apart from its well-known pathogenesis, insulin resistance has also been described in both undertreated