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Philip Newsholme, Vinicius Cruzat, Frank Arfuso, and Kevin Keane

stream, they have an important clinical impact. Diminished glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β-cell failure correlate with DM development ( Jensen et al . 2008 , Newsholme & Krause 2012 ), and consequently it is important to determine the

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Yusuke Seino, Takashi Miki, Wakako Fujimoto, Eun Young Lee, Yoshihisa Takahashi, Kohtaro Minami, Yutaka Oiso, and Susumu Seino

Introduction Insulin secreted from pancreatic β-cells plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Insulin secretion is regulated by various factors including nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids

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Kai-Chun Cheng, Ying-Xiao Li, Akihiro Asakawa, Miharu Ushikai, Ikuo Kato, Yuki Sato, Juei-Tang Cheng, and Akio Inui

). This peptide belongs to the insulin, gastric intestinal peptide, and endocrine peptide family. Several studies have shown that preptin can enhance insulin secretion, while infusion of isolated pancreases with preptin antibodies significantly reduces

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Xiaofeng Wang and Catherine B Chan

the context of diabetes mellitus, n-3 PUFAs have anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing functions ( Kalupahana et al . 2011 ). However, the effect of n-3 PUFAs on insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is not well recognized. Defects in insulin

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Zhengxiang Huang, Lili Huang, Chengjian Wang, Shanli Zhu, Xinzhou Qi, Yang Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Michael A Cowley, Johannes D Veldhuis, and Chen Chen

Introduction Hormonal disturbance, in either secretion amount or function, often occurs in parallel with impairment of glucose/lipid/protein metabolism in obesity. Two pivotal hormones, insulin and growth hormone (GH), which synergistically

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M Schütt, J Zhou, M Meier, and H H Klein

lead to an impairment of insulin secretion. Thus insulin-secretion defects have been observed in mice and beta cells from mice with a beta-cell-specific insulin receptor ( Kido et al. 2000 ) or IRS-1 ( Kulkarni et al. 1999 a , Kido et al. 2000

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Olivier Dumortier, Gaia Fabris, Didier F Pisani, Virginie Casamento, Nadine Gautier, Charlotte Hinault, Patricia Lebrun, Christophe Duranton, Michel Tauc, Stéphane Dalle, Julie Kerr-Conte, François Pattou, Marc Prentki, and Emmanuel Van Obberghen

linked to insulin secretion has several exclusive features. First, glucose transport is not limiting for its metabolism, and it results in a rapid equilibrium between intracellular and extracellular glucose at all glycemic levels. The second particular

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Daniel Simões, Patrícia Riva, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Maria Fernanda Graciano, Ana Claudia Munhoz, Marco Taneda, José Cipolla-Neto, and Angelo Rafael Carpinelli

stimulatory effect of melatonin in the pancreas ( Peschke & Peschke 1998 ), there are consistent scientific evidences supporting that melatonin inhibits insulin secretion in islets ( Peschke et al. 2000 ) and clonal beta cell lines ( Mühlbauer & Peschke 2007

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Juan P Zúñiga-Hertz, Eduardo Rebelato, Adam Kassan, Abdelrahman M Khalifa, Sameh S Ali, Hemal H Patel, and Fernando Abdulkader

Introduction Insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells is coupled with changes in the extracellular glucose concentration, as glucose uptake and metabolism lead to an increase in the intracellular ATP:ADP ratio. This results in an electrical response

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Olivier Le Bacquer, Gurvan Queniat, Valery Gmyr, Julie Kerr-Conte, Bruno Lefebvre, and François Pattou

specific deletion of TSC2 in β-cells induced β-cell apoptosis and reduced insulin secretion, after a first phase of β-cell mass expansion ( Shigeyama et al . 2008 ). In the rat, l -leucine, an amino acid known to induce mTORC1 activation, negatively