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Amy Hughes, Darling Rojas-Canales, Chris Drogemuller, Nicolas H Voelcker, Shane T Grey, and P T H Coates

Introduction Islet transplantation is an emerging therapy for highly selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and is now a funded treatment in the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland and recently in Australia ( McCall & Shapiro 2012

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Kira G Slepchenko, Kathryn L Corbin, and Craig S Nunemaker

Introduction Islets of Langerhans contain beta, alpha and delta cells, with beta cells responsible for the secretion of the hormone insulin ( Steiner et al. 2010 , Da Silva Xavier 2018 ), a hormone that is critical for lowering blood

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Benjamin J Lamont and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

, 2005 , Park et al . 2006 , Rankin & Kushner 2009 , Tschen et al . 2009 ). Moreover, a short duration of GLP1R agonist treatment was also found to be associated with increases in islet size and β-cell mass ( Stoffers et al . 2000 , Park et al

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Neil Tanday, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin, and R Charlotte Moffett

transdifferentiation is generally categorised as a fully differentiated islet cell, such as a beta-cell, losing its phenotype and converting to an entirely new islet endocrine like cell ( Talchai et al . 2012 , Rutter et al . 2015 ). This process can occur directly

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Rachel T Scarl, C Martin Lawrence, Hannah M Gordon, and Craig S Nunemaker

revealed that STEAP4 is found in adipose tissue, hepatocytes and pancreatic islets/beta-cells. These tissues are discussed in more detail below. STEAP4 in adipocytes Relative to other cell types, the effects of STEAP4 expression and mis-expression are

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Xiaofeng Wang and Catherine B Chan

converts n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA ( Kang et al . 2004 ). The fatty acid profile of Fat-1 mice demonstrates significantly higher concentrations of n-3 PUFA and lower concentrations of n-6 PUFA than that of WT mice in many tissues including pancreatic islets

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Helena C Barbosa, Silvana Bordin, Gabriel Anhê, Shanta J Persaud, James Bowe, Maria I Borelli, Juan J Gagliardino, and Antonio C Boschero

Introduction Islet cell differentiation is controlled by several transcription factors including pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), neurogenin3, Nkx-1 and many others ( Jensen et al . 2000 ). Hormonal, chemical, and neural signals are also

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Jose Casasnovas, Yunhee Jo, Xi Rao, Xiaoling Xuei, Mary E Brown, and Kok Lim Kua

al. 2017 ) and pancreatic islet dysfunction ( Gautier et al. 2001 , Tam et al. 2017 ). In addition to increased adiposity, recent human studies have shown that by the age of 7 years, children born to diabetic mothers had impaired glucose

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Henrik Ortsäter, Nina Grankvist, Richard E Honkanen, and Åke Sjöholm

2D patients exhibit a reduced β-cell mass, possibly due to increased rates of apoptosis ( Butler et al . 2003 ). Maintaining islet β-cell mass and adequate insulin secretion to meet metabolic demands is crucial to avoid glucose intolerance and the

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Jennifer Chen and Jenny E Gunton

Introduction The pancreas lies posterior to the stomach, extending from the spleen to the duodenum. It contains cells which perform exocrine and endocrine functions. Endocrine cells are found in clusters called the islets of Langerhans or