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Yuhui Liu, Le Zhang, Jing Li, Zhongyan Shan and Weiping Teng

. Marginal iodine deficiency is a major health problem for pregnant women. According to the evaluation criteria set for pregnant women by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007, marginal iodine deficiency is defined as a urinary iodine concentration

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Geoffrey J Beckett and John R Arthur

to H 2 O 2 is increased ( Demelash et al. 2004 ). When Se intake is adequate the intracellular GPX and TR systems protect the thyrocyte from these peroxides. Furthermore, in iodine deficiency or Grave’s disease, where hyperstimulation of the TSH

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Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase in human physiology and disease

Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone

Ana Luiza Maia, Iuri Martin Goemann, Erika L Souza Meyer and Simone Magagnin Wajner

that although D1 and D3 activity is unchanged in marginal iodine deficiency, D2 activity is markedly upregulated in D2-expressing tissues, thus increasing the proportion of T 3 formed locally and mitigating the decreases in tissue T 3 content ( Larsen

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Omer Turker, Kamil Kumanlioglu, Inanc Karapolat and Ismail Dogan

is mild/moderate iodine deficiency as well as mild selenium deficiency, as in most European countries ( Yanardag & Orak 2001 , Aydin et al. 2002 , Cinaz et al. 2004 ). The current recommended dietary intake of Se to achieve the maximal

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Nadia Schoenmakers, Kyriaki S Alatzoglou, V Krishna Chatterjee and Mehul T Dattani

basis is often undefined, but hypothalamic or pituitary pathology contributes to a qualitative or quantitative deficit in TSH synthesis or secretion ( Persani 2012 ). In a minority of cases, TSH deficiency is isolated and may occur as a result of defects

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K Boelaert and J A Franklyn

sparked an international debate about the need to screen women prenatally for subclinical hypothyroidism. The leading cause of maternal hypothyroidism worldwide remains iodine deficiency and the prevalence in endemic areas varies widely. In iodine

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Juan Bernal

during brain development. These include iodine deficiency, maternal and fetal hypothyroidism, maternal hypothyroxinemia, prematurity, nuclear T 3 receptor mutations (TR) and mutations of the monocarboxylate 8 transporter (MCT8) gene SLC16A2 . These

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Ángela Sánchez, Constanza Contreras-Jurado, Diego Rodríguez, Javier Regadera, Susana Alemany and Ana Aranda

has no function in hematopoiesis because TRβ KO mice have high circulating levels of thyroid hormone and the absence of receptor could be compensated by the excess of ligand. However, a study of the effect of the deficiency of TRβ together with TRα

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Vikte Lionikaite, Karin L Gustafsson, Anna Westerlund, Sara H Windahl, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Helena Johansson, Claes Ohlsson, H Herschel Conaway, Petra Henning and Ulf H Lerner

in human assessment; however, retinol levels in the serum are not reflective of vitamin A status unless there is a deficiency or surplus of the nutrient. Serum retinyl esters have been shown to be a more precise measurement of vitamin A status