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Brittany M Duggan Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Daniel M Marko Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Raveen Muzaffar Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Darryl Y Chan Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Jonathan D Schertzer Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, and Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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, differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity ( Adams 2001 , Manning et al. 2002 ). Protein kinases regulate the biological activity of other proteins by transferring a γ-phosphate group from an ATP molecule to a specific serine/threonine residue or a

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Leonie Cabot Synaptic Transmission in Energy Homeostasis Group, Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Gleueler Straße, Cologne, Germany
Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Straße, Cologne, Germany

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Juliet Erlenbeck-Dinkelmann Synaptic Transmission in Energy Homeostasis Group, Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Gleueler Straße, Cologne, Germany

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Henning Fenselau Synaptic Transmission in Energy Homeostasis Group, Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Gleueler Straße, Cologne, Germany
Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Straße, Cologne, Germany
Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Preventive Medicine (CEDP), University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Straße, Cologne, Germany

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Introduction The brain plays an essential role in coordinating feeding behavior and systemic glucose metabolism. For example, the brain determines the timing, composition, and quantity of nutrients that are consumed. On the other hand, it

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Shannon M Bailey Division of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology

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Uduak S Udoh Division of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology

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Martin E Young Division of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology

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Introduction Both energetic supply and demand fluctuate as a function of time-of-day, concomitant with daily sleep–wake and fasting–feeding cycles. It is therefore not surprising that marked diurnal variations in metabolism are observed at multiple

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Che-Pei Kung Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA

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Maureen E Murphy Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA

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relationship between p53, metabolism and metabolic diseases has become a new focal point for p53 researchers ( Sano et al . 2007 , Vousden & Ryan 2009 , Berkers et al . 2013 ). This review will cover the role of p53 in metabolism, with focus on its role in

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Ines Ross Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, California, USA

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Denzel B Omengan Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, California, USA
Cardiovascular Research Institute & Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

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Guo N Huang Cardiovascular Research Institute & Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

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Alexander Y Payumo Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, California, USA

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regenerative potential ( Cao et al. 2019 , Cardoso et al. 2020 , Amram et al. 2021 , Graham & Huang 2021 ). Since thyroid hormones are traditionally recognized for their classical roles in regulating animal metabolism and body temperature ( Maillet et

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Fan Yang College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, P. R. China

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Shuang Zhao College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, P. R. China

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Pingqing Wang College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, P. R. China

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Wei Xiang School of Advanced Agriculture and Bioengineering, Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing, P. R. China

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Introduction In mammals, the close link between energy metabolism and reproduction has been well explained ( Schneider 2004 ). Due to the high energy consumption of reproduction, it is strictly regulated by energy metabolism factors ( Manfredi

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Edra London Section on Endocrinology and Genetics WEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Michelle Bloyd Section on Endocrinology and Genetics WEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Constantine A Stratakis Section on Endocrinology and Genetics WEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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is not surprising that the PKA-axis plays a central role in metabolism and energy balance. Dynamic regulation of the PKA system Molecular genetic techniques have enabled the generation of mouse models to investigate the specificity and

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Taira Wada Laboratory of Health Science, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabshi, Chiba, Japan

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Yukiko Yamamoto Laboratory of Health Science, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabshi, Chiba, Japan

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Yukiko Takasugi Laboratory of Health Science, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabshi, Chiba, Japan

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Hirotake Ishii Laboratory of Health Science, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabshi, Chiba, Japan

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Taketo Uchiyama Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabshi, Chiba, Japan

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Kaori Saitoh Department of Psychiatry, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Masahiro Suzuki Department of Psychiatry, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Makoto Uchiyama Department of Psychiatry, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Tokyo Adachi Hospital, Adachi, Tokyo, Japan

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Hikari Yoshitane Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Yoshitaka Fukada Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Shigeki Shimba Laboratory of Health Science, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabshi, Chiba, Japan

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et al. 1999 ). Because adiponectin is a crucial factor in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress, reduced adiponectin levels play a causal role in the development of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome

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Mariana Rosolen Tavares Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Food and Health (LABMAS), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil
Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders (LABDIME), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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Simone Ferreira Lemes Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders (LABDIME), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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Thais de Fante Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders (LABDIME), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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Cristina Saenz de Miera Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Isadora Carolina Betim Pavan Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Food and Health (LABMAS), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil
Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders (LABDIME), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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Rosangela Maria Neves Bezerra Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Food and Health (LABMAS), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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Patricia Oliveira Prada Laboratory of Molecular Research in Obesity (LABIMO), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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Marcio Alberto Torsoni Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders (LABDIME), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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Carol Fuzeti Elias Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Fernando Moreira Simabuco Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Food and Health (LABMAS), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil
Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders (LABDIME), School of Applied Sciences (FCA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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(CNS) for controlling the metabolism of the entire body, being responsible for integrating hormonal and nutritional signals from the periphery and for coordinating appropriate responses associated with the individual nutritional status ( Bouret

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Shiho Fujisaka First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan

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Yoshiyuki Watanabe First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan

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Kazuyuki Tobe First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan

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Physiological role of the gut microbiota Nutrient metabolism and absorption Degradation of indigestible polysaccharides Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites generated from the fermentation of insoluble dietary fiber and

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