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Laura Marroqui, Eva Tudurí, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena, Iván Quesada, Ángel Nadal and Reinaldo Sousa dos Santos

metabolism by affecting multiple cellular events in different organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria ( Meyer et al. 2013 , Nadal et al. 2017 , Rajamani et al. 2017 ). Mitochondria are essential for the normal cellular

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Sergio Di Meo, Susanna Iossa and Paola Venditti

dysregulation, including IR. The theory also suggests that mitochondria are key players in the IR development, but there are different views about the mechanisms by which mitochondria contribute to IR pathogenesis. It has been proposed that a decrease in

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R Mastrocola, F Restivo, I Vercellinatto, O Danni, E Brignardello, M Aragno and G Boccuzzi

role in brain damage ( Aragno et al. 2000 a , b , 2002 , Arvanitakis et al. 2004 ). Emerging evidence shows that the increased oxidative stress and consequent oxidative damage observed in hyperglycemic conditions begins in the mitochondria, which

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Zhe-Zhen Liao, Xiao-Yan Qi, Ya-Di Wang, Jiao-Yang Li, Qian-Qian Gu, Can Hu, Yin Hu, Heng Sun, Li Ran, Jing Yang, Jiang-Hua Liu and Xin-Hua Xiao

betatrophin in WAT beiging by employing a loss-of-function approach in mice. Here, we discovered that inhibition of betatrophin attenuated white fat mass and improve TG levels through stimulating beiging process and mitochondria biogenesis. The above process

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Kechun Tang, Teresa Pasqua, Angshuman Biswas, Sumana Mahata, Jennifer Tang, Alisa Tang, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Amiya P Sinha-Hikim, Nai-Wen Chi, Nicholas J G Webster, Angelo Corti and Sushil K Mahata

cristae membrane surface area. To normalize the measurement, this area was divided by the outer membrane area per mitochondrion. The sum of the area of the mitochondria was divided by the area of the cytoplasm and multiplied by 100 to determine the

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Sandra Zárate, Mariana Astiz, Natalia Magnani, Mercedes Imsen, Florencia Merino, Silvia Álvarez, Analía Reinés and Adriana Seilicovich

Introduction Mitochondria are key organelles for cellular bioenergetics and survival. They are the main source of ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain and also the primary sites for cellular

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Giuseppe Calamita, Maria Moreno, Domenico Ferri, Elena Silvestri, Patrizia Roberti, Luigi Schiavo, Patrizia Gena, Maria Svelto and Fernando Goglia

Introduction Triiodothyronine (T3) exerts significant actions on energy metabolism, with mitochondria being a major target for its effects ( Soboll 1993 ). Extensive changes occur in the mitochondrial compartment in response either

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Malin Fex, Lisa M Nicholas, Neelanjan Vishnu, Anya Medina, Vladimir V Sharoyko, David G Nicholls, Peter Spégel and Hindrik Mulder

secretion by circulating hormones, paracrine and autocrine mechanisms and neuronal (autonomic and sensory) activity. All these mechanisms combine to enhance insulin secretion in an efficacious fashion ( Ahrén 2000 ). Here, mitochondria play a key role

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A single intraperitoneal injection of 2 μg. d-aldosterone monoacetate/g. body weight produced a rapid, but temporary, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in mouse liver mitochondria. This resulted in low P:O ratios in male and female animals of 1·21 and 1·52, respectively. The P:O ratio of females remained somewhat lower than the control levels but there was a progressive improvement in oxidative phosphorylation during the first 24 hr. after the injection leading to P: O ratios similar to those in the controls. Experiments in vitro showed that the uncoupling effects of aldosterone were related to its concentration in the reaction medium. Aldosterone added to fresh rat liver mitochondria, at concentrations of 10−10, 10−7 and 10−4m inhibited phosphorylation by 9·5, 77·1 and 95·1% and lowered P:O ratios to 2·46, 1·66 and 0·41, respectively. These changes in oxidative phosphorylation were not related to alteration in ATPase activity and were independent of mitochondrial electrolyte concentration.

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During an ultrastructural study of the rat adrenal cortex (Kadioglu & Harrison, 1971) the mitochondria in both normal and experimentally treated rats showed a variable appearance. It was decided to examine further the ultrastructure of adrenal cortical mitochondria in normal rats. Fifty-three adult inbred Wistar rats (136–348 g) were examined. Sliced pieces of adrenal cortices were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde in 0·1 m-sodium cacodylate buffer and embedded in Araldite, sectioned, stained with lead citrate, and examined with an Hitachi HS 7S electron microscope.

Several different fine structural characteristics were found in the mitochondria of the zona fasciculata in both sexes regardless of age and body weight. The diameters varied from 1·3 × 0·8 μm to 8·4 × 6·2 μm. Although the shape changed from cell to cell they were generally oval or nearly round. The polylaminar membranous internum contained several layers of concentric membranes around a core, or sometimes a double