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Hiroharu Mifune, Yuji Tajiri, Yusuke Sakai, Yukie Kawahara, Kento Hara, Takahiro Sato, Yoshihiro Nishi, Akinori Nishi, Ryouichi Mitsuzono, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, and Masayasu Kojima

producing the motivation to perform and adhere to exercise, especially in obese subjects. Ghrelin, which was originally identified as a growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), is an orexigenic gut hormone. This 28-amino acid peptide is produced by the X

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Arnaud Jean, Anne-Charlotte Trouillet, Njiva Andry Andrianarivelo, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja, and Hélène Hardin-Pouzet

Introduction Sexual behaviour in male rodents can be described as a series of behavioural elements cumulating in ejaculation. These involve approaches and olfactory investigations of the female during the motivational phase of sexual behaviour

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Daniel J Tobiansky, George V Kachkovski, Reilly T Enos, Kim L Schmidt, E Angela Murphy, Stan B Floresco, and Kiran K Soma

). Briefly, this task consists of a geometric progression of lever presses required to receive one sugar pellet and is considered a measure of motivation to access sugar (initial sequence = 1, 2, 4, 6, 9…; maximum lever presses = 2012). Rats were given 20 min

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Marian Joëls and E Ronald de Kloet

(BNST), which is a hub in the network from where efferents run to orexin neurons implicated in arousal. BNST neurons innervate the limbic brain and the nucleus accumbens underlying motivation and reward behaviours likely with the goal to still salt

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Gilvanildo Roberto da Silva, Mariane Gomes Carneiro, Miriam Pereira Barbosa, Jaciane de Almeida Costa, Ivone Antonia de Souza, Lisiane dos Santos Oliveira, Diogo Antonio Alves de Vasconcelos, Elizabeth do Nascimento, Rhowena Jane Barbosa Matos, Sandra Lopes de Souza, and Manuela Figueiroa Lyra de Freitas

Obesogenic diets are known to induce obesity and changes in food intake in experimental animals. Obesity negatively affects the peripheral metabolism and neural aspects, such as changes in eating behavior. In obese animals, dopamine (DA) receptor levels are reduced. DA is one of the main peptides involved in the motivation and pleasure of eating. A combination of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) has shown promise in controlling metabolic alterations, but there are few studies on how they modulate dopaminergic expression. NB, in addition to reducing food intake and body weight, can modify tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) and DA receptor D2 (Drd2 ) levels in the mesolimbic areas of rats submitted to a high-fat diet (HF). The study evaluated the effect of NB on food intake, body weight, and expression levels of Th, Drd1a, and Drd2 , in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of rats fed on HF diet. Wistar rats were grouped according to diet: standard (n  = 20) and HF diet (n  = 20). The food intake and body weight were analyzed. The gene expression of Th, Drd1a, and Drd2 was evaluated using real-time PCR. NB combination of 1 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg reduced food intake and body weight, increased Drd2 expression in rats on HF diet, and increased Th in rats on both experimental diets. The level of Drd1a was unchanged. We concluded that bodyweight reduction may be associated with decreased food intake in response to the increased Drd2 expression in the mesolimbic areas of rats that received an HF diet.

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Brittney L Marshall, Yang Liu, Michelle J Farrington, Jiude Mao, William G Helferich, A Katrin Schenk, Nathan J Bivens, Saurav J Sarma, Zhentian Lei, Lloyd W Sumner, Trupti Joshi, and Cheryl S Rosenfeld

Human offspring encounter high amounts of phytoestrogens, such as genistein (GEN), through maternal diet and soy-based formulas. Such chemicals can exert estrogenic activity and thereby disrupt neurobehavioral programming. Besides inducing direct host effects, GEN might cause gut dysbiosis and alter gut metabolites. To determine whether exposure to GEN affects these parameters, California mice (Peromyscus californicus) dams were placed 2 weeks prior to breeding and throughout gestation and lactation on a diet supplemented with GEN (250 mg/kg feed weight) or AIN93G phytoestrogen-free control diet (AIN). At weaning, offspring socio-communicative behaviors, gut microbiota and metabolite profiles were assayed. Exposure of offspring to GEN-induced sex-dependent changes in gut microbiota and metabolites. GEN exposed females were less likely to investigate a novel female mouse when tested in a three-chamber social test. When isolated, GEN males and females exhibited increased latency to elicit their first call, suggestive of reduced motivation to communicate with other individuals. Correlation analyses revealed interactions between GEN-induced microbiome, metabolome and socio-communicative behaviors. Comparison of GEN males with AIN males revealed the fraction of calls above 20 kHz was associated with daidzein, α-tocopherol, Flexispira spp. and Odoribacter spp. Results suggest early GEN exposure disrupts normal socio-communicative behaviors in California mice, which are otherwise evident in these social rodents. Such effects may be due to GEN disruptions on neural programming but might also be attributed to GEN-induced microbiota shifts and resultant changes in gut metabolites. Findings indicate cause for concern that perinatal exposure to GEN may detrimentally affect the offspring microbiome–gut–brain axis.

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Donald Pfaff

steps involved in producing a mammalian behaviour. Emboldened by success in this endeavour, we have begun to deepen the level of enquiry by reasoning from sex behaviours themselves, to their underlying motivational states, and in turn to the fundamental

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Catherine Gibbons, Graham Finlayson, Michelle Dalton, Phillipa Caudwell, and John E Blundell

physiological signals of energy requirements are integrated with the motivation to eat via sensations of hunger and fullness. This review was commissioned to strictly address the behavioural aspects of appetite control, which provide the foundation for obtaining

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Candice Marion, Philippe Zizzari, Raphael G P Denis, Rim Hassouna, Yacine Chebani, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Hélène Doat, Gwenaëlle Le Pen, Daniela Cota, Florence Noble, Serge Luquet, and Jacques Pantel

-way repeated measure ANOVA followed by Sidak’s post hoc tests. * P  < 0.05; ** P  < 0.01; *** P  < 0.001; ~non-significant trend ( P  < 0.1). Data represent mean ± s.e.m . Ghsr M/M rats show unaltered spontaneous conditioning and motivation

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Andrea Stojakovic, Enma P Espinosa, Osman T Farhad, and Kabirullah Lutfy

major brain regions responsible for the control of energy homeostasis, whereas the mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons and other brain areas, involved in motivation and emotion, are in charge of the hedonic aspects of food intake ( Kelley & Berridge 2002