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Masahiro Ogawa, Tomoya Kitakaze, Naoki Harada, and Ryoichi Yamaji

muscle mass in young female mice ( Ihemelandu 1981 ). We previously reported that E 2 replacement decreases the muscle mass in young OVX mice ( Ogawa et al . 2011 ). However, the mechanism by which E 2 decreases skeletal muscle mass in young females is

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A M Solomon and P M G Bouloux

elucidated ( Martel et al. 2006 ). Sarcopenia The term sarcopenia (the loss of muscle mass and strength during ageing) is Greek-derived meaning ‘lack of flesh’, and may co-exist with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Measurement and clinical

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Laura D Brown

energy expenditure varies considerably based on the amount of lean mass that an individual possesses ( Mifflin et al . 1990 , Nelson et al . 1992 , Taguchi et al . 2011 ). Based on estimates for the energy required to maintain the muscle fractional

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Nele Cielen, Nele Heulens, Karen Maes, Geert Carmeliet, Chantal Mathieu, Wim Janssens, and Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez

measured by liquid-phase radioimmunoassay. Muscle mass The soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and gastrocnemius muscles from both hindlimbs were weighed and mass of left and right muscles was summed and presented in the Results section

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M Granado, A I Martín, T Priego, A López-Calderón, and M A Villanúa

observed in food intake ( Ibáñez de Cáceres et al. 2000 , Granado et al. 2006 ). The decrease in body weight in arthritic rats can be seen in the decrease in skeletal muscle weight and in the adipose mass. This muscular atrophy has been reported in

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O Schakman, H Gilson, and J P Thissen

to preserve muscle mass and function in patients exposed to high doses of glucocorticoids. Role of glucocorticoids in muscle atrophy of wasting conditions Many pathological conditions characterized by muscle atrophy (sepsis, cachexia, starvation

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Manon M Roustit, Joan M Vaughan, Pauline M Jamieson, and Mark E Cleasby

by the plasma glucose-specific activity over 90 min and was stated per unit muscle mass. Muscle glycogen content Glycogen was extracted from muscles and quantified as described previously ( Chan & Exton 1976 ). Briefly, TC muscle tissue was digested

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Susan M Soto, Amy C Blake, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Paul J Rozance, Kristen B Barthel, Bifeng Gao, Byron Hetrick, Carrie E McCurdy, Natalia G Garza, William W Hay Jr, Leslie A Leinwand, Jacob E Friedman, and Laura D Brown

( Tchirikov et al . 1998 , Yajnik 2004 ). As a result, skeletal muscle growth is restricted. In IUGR fetuses and neonates, body composition analyses show 25–40% reductions in muscle mass when compared to appropriate-for-gestational age counterparts ( Yau

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Eileen I Chang, Paul J Rozance, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Leanna M Nguyen, Steven C Shaw, Robert A Sclafani, Kristen K Bjorkman, Angela K Peter, William W Hay Jr, and Laura D Brown

Introduction Two distinct phases of myogenesis in utero establish fetal skeletal muscle mass. After the scaffold of primary myofibers is established during the embryonic period, secondary myogenesis occurs from the proliferation and fusion

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Alexander Hennebry, Jenny Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda D Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta L Fiorotto, Shelley Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Mônica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, and Christopher D McMahon

months ( Barton-Davis et al. 1998 , Musaro et al. 2001 ), more recent studies using transgenic Igf1 mice aged up to 28 months found that IGF1 alone did not prevent the loss of mass and strength of old muscles ( McMahon et al. 2014 ). In contrast