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Dilip K Garikipati, Scott A Gahr, and Buel D Rodgers

-to-matrix interactions, and extracellular secreted factors including myostatin (also known as growth/differentiating factor (GDF)-8) ( Lee 2004 ). This member of the transforming growth factor (TGF) β-superfamily is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth

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Dilip K Garikipati and Buel D Rodgers

of myoblasts in general is regulated by several factors including myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth in mammals ( Rodgers & Garikipati 2008 ), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a positive regulator ( Duan et al . 2010 ). Most

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Bao-Wei Wang, Hang Chang, Peiliang Kuan, and Kou-Gi Shyu

Introduction Angiotensin II (AngII) plays a critical role in cardiac remodeling and promotes cardiac myocyte hypertrophy ( Schnee & Hsueh 2000 ). Excess of AngII can lead to cardiac dysfunction and failure. Myostatin is a transforming growth factor

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Alexander Hennebry, Jenny Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda D Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta L Fiorotto, Shelley Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Mônica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, and Christopher D McMahon

to IGF1, myostatin inhibits muscle growth. In the absence of myostatin, the mass of skeletal muscles is increased two- to three-fold more than that in wild-type mice during development ( McPherron et al. 1997 ). Despite the importance of IGF1 and

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Jorge N Artaza, Rajan Singh, Monica G Ferrini, Melissa Braga, James Tsao, and Nestor F Gonzalez-Cadavid

, and kidney fibrosis ( Aoki et al . 2005 , Patella et al . 2006 ). Myostatin, the only known negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, is also a member of the TGF-β superfamily ( Lee 2004 , Tsuchida 2004 ). It has been shown to modulate

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Melissa F Jackson, Dung Luong, Dor Dor Vang, Dilip K Garikipati, James B Stanton, O Lynne Nelson, and Buel D Rodgers

treatments for these related disorders. Potential therapeutics for sarcopenia and other muscle-wasting diseases include those that target myostatin, a myokine best known for negatively regulating skeletal muscle mass and for the extreme musculature generated

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Ryan Paul, Kim Whiteman, Shelley J Falconer, Jenny M Oldham, Ferenc Jeanplong, Kenneth G Matthews, Heather K Smith, Mark Thomas, Trevor Watson, and Christopher D McMahon

-natal growth and adult body size ( Stratikopoulos et al. 2008 ). Myostatin, too, has a profound, but inhibitory, influence on the growth of skeletal muscle during embryogenesis and post-natal growth. Myostatin is present in skeletal muscle at the earliest

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Jorge N Artaza, Suzanne Reisz-Porszasz, Joan S Dow, Robert A Kloner, James Tsao, Shalender Bhasin, and Nestor F Gonzalez-Cadavid

Introduction Myostatin (Mst) is an endogenous negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in rodents, cattle, other mammals, and fish ( Lee 2004 , Dominique & Gerard 2006 , Tsao et al. 2006 , Tsuchida 2006 ). The Mst knockout

Open access

Mark E Cleasby, Pauline M Jamieson, and Philip J Atherton

effect, as manipulating bioavailability of single proteins in individual muscles, for example by inhibition of myostatin (MSTN; Cleasby et al. 2014 ), can result in enhanced glucose disposal on a per unit mass basis in addition to increased muscle mass

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S Vianello, L Brazzoduro, L Dalla Valle, P Belvedere, and L Colombo

Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. We have studied myostatin expression during embryonic and post-hatching development in zebrafish by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The transcript is present in just-fertilized eggs and declines at 8 h post-fertilization (hpf), suggesting a maternal origin. A secondary rise occurs at 16 hpf, indicating the onset of embryonic transcription at the time of muscle cell differentiation. The level of myostatin mRNA decreases slightly at 24 hpf, when somitogenesis is almost concluded, and rises again at and after hatching, during the period of limited muscle hyperplastic growth that is typical of slow-growing, small fish. In the adult muscle, we found the highest expression of myostatin mRNA and protein, which were detectable by Northern and Western blot analyses respectively. Although only the precursor protein form was revealed in the adult lateral muscle, we demonstrated that zebrafish myostatin is proteolytically processed and secreted in cultured cells, as is its mammalian counterpart. These results suggest that myostatin may play an important regulatory role during myogenesis and muscle growth in fish, as it does in mammals. In chronically stressed fish, grown from 16 days post-fertilization to adulthood in an overcrowded environment, we observed both depression of body growth and a diminished level of myostatin mRNA in the adult muscle, as compared with controls. We propose that chronic stunting in fish brings about a general depression of muscle protein synthesis which does not spare myostatin.