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Ernane Torres Uchoa, Paula Beatriz Marangon, Rodrigo Rorato, Silvia Graciela Ruginsk, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues and Lucila L K Elias

primary adrenal insufficiency in humans ( Freedman et al. 1985 , Oelkers 1996 , Uchoa et al. 2009 a , b ). The hypophagic effect induced by ADX is associated with changes in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the

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Nilli Zmora, Ten-Tsao Wong, John Stubblefield, Berta Levavi-Sivan and Yonathan Zohar

vertebrate species, for which the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) is pivotal to the regulation of reproduction. During the past decade, numerous known and novel neuropeptides have been implicated in the upstream control of GnRH neurons and

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K Eerola, S Virtanen, L Vähätalo, L Ailanen, M Cai, V Hruby, M Savontaus and E Savontaus

Introduction The melanocortin neuropeptide system is essential for the regulation of body weight (BW) and energy balance as evidenced by genetic disruptions of the melanocortin pathways leading to obesity in both humans and rodents ( Fan et

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M G Castro and E Morrison

Introduction

There is a growing body of evidence which indicates that several neuropeptides and peptide hormones may play a role within the nucleus of both their target cells and the cells in which they are synthesised. This has been suggested by their localisation within the nuclei of these cells. There have also been observations concerning the nuclear translocation of specific receptors for such neuropeptides and hormones. The association of peptide hormones and neuropeptides with the nucleus suggests that these molecules may exert some of their biological functions within the nucleus itself. In this Commentary we evaluate the different mechanisms by which neuropeptides and peptide hormones might be translocated into the nucleus, and speculate upon their putative nuclear roles.

Nuclear localisation of neuropeptides: a targeting paradox?

It is now well established that within the endocrine and nervous systems, peptide hormones and neuropeptides are synthesised by specialised cells, released in a regulated

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Mathias V Schmidt, Claudia Liebl, Vera Sterlemann, Karin Ganea, Jakob Hartmann, Daniela Harbich, Stephanie Alam and Marianne B Müller

able to ameliorate the initial HPA axis activation due to maternal separation by glucose replacement or by antagonizing the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor (i.e. ghrelin receptor). Based on these data we hypothesized that neuropeptide Y (NPY

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Susannah Cleary, Jacqueline K Phillips, Thanh-Truc Huynh, Karel Pacak, Abdel G Elkahloun, Jennifer Barb, Robert A Worrell, David S Goldstein and Graeme Eisenhofer

proteins and peptides that are stored and processed within chromaffin granules from where they are coreleased with catecholamines, thereby potentially contributing to the clinical manifestations of these tumours ( Parmer & Zinder 2002 ). Neuropeptide Y

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Liisa Ailanen, Suvi T Ruohonen, Laura H Vähätalo, Katja Tuomainen, Kim Eerola, Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Matias Röyttä, Asta Laiho, Markku Ahotupa, Helena Gylling and Eriika Savontaus

Introduction Besides its orexigenic nature in the hypothalamus (Zarjevski et al. 1993, Yang et al. 2009, Sousa-Ferreira et al. 2011), neuropeptide Y (NPY) induces obesity and metabolic alterations independent of hyperphagia. In humans, a

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M S Mondal, H Yamaguchi, Y Date, K Toshinai, T Kawagoe, T Tsuruta, H Kageyama, Y Kawamura, S Shioda, Y Shimomura, M Mori and M Nakazato

function. Recently, we isolated an endogenous peptide ligand for GPR7 and GPR8, named neuropeptide W (NPW), from the porcine hypothalamus using a cAMP accumulation inhibition assay of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines stably expressing human GPR8 ( Shimomura

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Kikuko Hotta, Masahiro Hosaka, Atsushi Tanabe and Toshiyuki Takeuchi

-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and POMC in the hypothalamus, and it forms granule-like structures in association with these neuropeptides ( Tanabe et al . 2007 ). Furthermore, SCG3 is known to bind chromogranin A (CGA) and targets it to the

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Megan N Purpera, Li Shen, Marzieh Taghavi, Heike Münzberg, Roy J Martin, Susan M Hutson and Christopher D Morrison

intake, reduced orexigenic neuropeptide gene expression, and avoidance of high-protein (HP) diets. Materials and Methods Animals BCATm-deficient mice (KO mice) were developed as described previously by She et al . (2007) , who also described the general