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Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall

-induced TLR4 signaling ( Harii et al . 2005 , McCall et al . 2007 , 2010 , 2013 , Schwartz et al . 2009 , Deosarkar et al . 2014 ). Our lead compound, phenylmethimazole (C10), is a derivative of methimazole that inhibits inflammation resulting from

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Cesidio Giuliani, Ines Bucci, Valeria Montani, Dinah S Singer, Fabrizio Monaco, Leonard D Kohn, and Giorgio Napolitano

characterized a tautomeric cyclic thione derivative of MMI, phenylmethimazole (compound 10, or C10; Fig. 1 ), as more potent than MMI in the reduction of MHC expression. In those studies, we used FRTL-5 cells as a nontransformed cell line of rat TECs, which are

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Kelly D McCall, Dawn Holliday, Eric Dickerson, Brian Wallace, Anthony L Schwartz, Christopher Schwartz, Christopher J Lewis, Leonard D Kohn, and Frank L Schwartz

. We have previously shown that phenylmethimazole (C10) is effective in blocking toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated activation of inflammatory pathways in non-immune cells ( Dagia et al . 2004 , Harii et al . 2005 , McCall et al . 2007 , Schwartz

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C Giuliani, M Saji, I Bucci, G Fiore, M Liberatore, D S Singer, F Monaco, L D Kohn, and G Napolitano

and C ), similar to that of 10 μg/ml insulin. The maximal decrease of the full-length promoter activity is about 50% (±7%) of control, matching the decrease of mRNA previously described (~46% of control) ( Saji et al. 1992 b ). The decrease