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Daniele Leão Ignacio, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato, Diego Silvestre, Leonardo Matta, Andressa Lima de Vansconcelos, Denise Pires Carvalho, Antonio Galina, João Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, and João Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque

and could explain the fat gain observed in this model. Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological approach to treat metabolic diseases ( Colberg et al. 2010 ). Exercise-induced adaptations slow down age-related muscle-function decline, including

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Mercedes Lombarte, Brenda L Fina, Maela Lupo, Marília A Buzalaf, and Alfredo Rigalli

of physical activity on IR in rats treated with NaF in drinking water. It has been hypothesized that controlled exercise could be a tool to counteract the effect of chronic ingestion of NaF on IR. Materials and methods Experimental groups Experiments

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Ana P Pinto, Alisson L da Rocha, Eike B Kohama, Rafael C Gaspar, Fernando M Simabuco, Fabiani G Frantz, Leandro P de Moura, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Ellen C de Freitas, and Adelino S R da Silva

adequate function and survival of the organism, becoming harmful when chronically engaged ( Hotamisligil 2010 ). The practice of intense physical exercise increases plasma IL-6 concentration ( Wojewoda et al . 2014 , 2015 ). Also, IL-6 has been

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Hyo Youl Moon, Parkyong Song, Cheol Soo Choi, Sung Ho Ryu, and Pann-Ghill Suh

is regulated by lifestyle modifications that aim to increase physical activity, induce weight reduction, and decrease energy intake ( Farrell & Larter 2006 ). Exercise is accompanied by metabolic adaptations that promote the delivery to, and oxidation

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Ferran Jardí, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Nari Kim, Rougin Khalil, Brigitte Decallonne, Dirk Vanderschueren, and Frank Claessens

adult exercise behavior is highly heterogenic between studies, most likely due to differences in the methodology used to assess physical activity ( Simonen et al. 2002 , Eriksson et al. 2006 ). In addition, candidate gene studies have pointed out

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Hari K Somineni, Gregory P Boivin, and Khalid M Elased

disease (CKD) ( Pechter et al . 2003 ). Moderate-intensity exercise for 150 min/week or vigorous-intensity exercise for 90 min/week is recommended to achieve therapeutic benefits for type 2 diabetes ( Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee 2008

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Mirian A Kurauti, José M Costa-Júnior, Sandra M Ferreira, Gustavo J dos Santos, André O P Protzek, Tarlliza R Nardelli, Luiz F de Rezende, and Antonio C Boschero

insulinemia in physical exercised DIO mice. Materials and methods Animals and diet Male C57BL/6 mice from the State University of Campinas Facilities were maintained on a 12h light:12h darkness cycle at 20–21°C with controlled humidity during the

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G Boaventura, G Casimiro-Lopes, C C Pazos-Moura, E Oliveira, P C Lisboa, and E G Moura

( Beaglehole & Yach 2003 ). Some studies point to the quantity of visceral fat and its particular inflammatory profile to explain the adverse metabolic effects of obesity ( Bosello & Zamboni 2000 , Masuzaki et al . 2001 ). Chronic exercise (physical training

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Erica Sarchielli, Paolo Comeglio, Sandra Filippi, Ilaria Cellai, Giulia Guarnieri, Daniele Guasti, Elena Rapizzi, Giulia Rastrelli, Daniele Bani, Gabriella Vannelli, Linda Vignozzi, Annamaria Morelli, and Mario Maggi

such as increased sedentary screen time, physical inactivity and diet ( Roberts & Barnard 2005 ). Lifestyle modifications, including both dietary and physical training interventions, are well-known treatments for MetS. Exercise and physical activity are

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The effects of strenuous daytime physical exercise were examined in 12 healthy male volunteers. All-night electrophysiological recordings were made and blood was sampled during sleep by indwelling venous catheter.

Plasma growth hormone levels were significantly increased after exercise but the sleep electroencephalographic patterns of nights after exercise did not differ significantly from those of control nights. Plasma corticosteroids were decreased after exercise. It is suggested that higher levels of growth hormone are consistent with reparative processes during sleep.