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David R Grattan

Introduction When Geoffrey Harris wrote his influential monograph on ‘Neural Control of the Pituitary Gland’, it was already apparent that prolactin, or ‘lactogenic hormone’ as he referred to it, might be controlled differently to the other

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Jason P Breves, Mayu Inokuchi, Yoko Yamaguchi, Andre P Seale, Bethany L Hunt, Soichi Watanabe, Darren T Lerner, Toyoji Kaneko and E Gordon Grau

( Kaneko et al. 2008 , Konno et al. 2010 ). Decades of comparative study have revealed that a conserved function for prolactin (Prl) across vertebrates is the regulation of ion and water transport ( Bole-Feysot et al. 1998 ). In teleosts, Prl

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Chengyuan Lin, Xue Jiang, Mulan He, Ling Zhao, Tao Huang, Zhaoxiang Bian and Anderson O L Wong

receptors can bind PACAP and VIP with similar affinity ( Vaudry et al . 2009 ). In mammals, VIP is well-documented as a stimulator for prolactin (PRL) release ( Christian et al . 2007 ) but the functional role of PACAP in PRL regulation is controversial

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G Boaventura, G Casimiro-Lopes, C C Pazos-Moura, E Oliveira, P C Lisboa and E G Moura

maternal prolactin (PRL) with the dopamine agonist bromo-α-ergocryptine (Bro). This method programs for obesity, hyperleptinemia, leptin resistance ( Bonomo et al . 2007 ), and hypothyroidism ( Bonomo et al . 2008 ), and symptoms (including insulin

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Laura D Ratner, Guillermina Stevens, Maria Marta Bonaventura, Victoria A Lux-Lantos, Matti Poutanen, Ricardo S Calandra, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi and Susana B Rulli

linked to insulin resistance, since insulin promotes fat cell differentiation, enhances adipocyte glucose uptake, and inhibits adipocyte lipolysis. Although the role of prolactin in reproduction is well known, the participation of this hormone in weight

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E Y Faraoni, A I Abeledo Machado, P A Pérez, C A Marcial López, M A Camilletti, M Peña-Zanoni, S B Rulli, S Gutiérrez and G Díaz-Torga

treatment of prolactinomas are to normalize prolactin levels in order to restore fertility and sexual function, to reduce the tumour mass to potentially relieve the visual defects and headaches and to preserve the residual pituitary function ( Liu

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Dan Li, Yan Ji, Chunlan Zhao, Yapeng Yao, Anlan Yang, Honghong Jin, Yang Chen, Mingjun San, Jing Zhang, Mingjiao Zhang, Luqing Zhang, Xuechao Feng and Yaowu Zheng

and involution ( Macias & Hinck 2012 ). Mammary gland development requires hormones including prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2). PRL controls alveologenesis and lactogenesis of mammary gland through phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5 axis

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A J Craven, A J Nixon, M G Ashby, C J Ormandy, K Blazek, R J Wilkins and A J Pearson

& Rosenfield 2003 ), including the pituitary hormone prolactin. Prolactin receptors (PRLR) have been localised to hair follicles ( Craven et al. 2001 ) and expression of mRNAs encoding one long (PRLRL) and two short forms of the receptor (PRLRS2 and PRLRS3

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Sophie Bernichtein, Philippe Touraine and Vincent Goffin

Classical view Prolactin (PRL) was discovered 80 years ago ( Stricker & Grueter 1928 , Riddle et al . 1933 ). In Endocrinology textbooks, PRL is defined as a pituitary-secreted polypeptide hormone which was named for its stimulatory action on

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F E Utama, M J LeBaron, L M Neilson, A S Sultan, A F Parlow, K-U Wagner and H Rui

Introduction Growth and differentiation of breast cancer is regulated by hormones, notably estrogen, progesterone and prolactin. In rodents, prolactin is a well-documented tumor promoter of the mammary gland, as revealed by a variety