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M J Devlin, C Grasemann, A M Cloutier, L Louis, C Alm, M R Palmert and M L Bouxsein

), and serum IGF1 by RIA (ALPCO) as described previously ( Bouxsein et al . 2002 ). Serum bone formation and resorption markers, type 1 procollagen N-terminal (P1NP) and collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), were measured by ELISA

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Kotaro Azuma, Stephanie C Casey, Masako Ito, Tomohiko Urano, Kuniko Horie, Yasuyoshi Ouchi, Séverine Kirchner, Bruce Blumberg and Satoshi Inoue

understand the roles of SXR/PXR in the bone tissue more precisely. Our results demonstrated that loss of SXR/PXR enhanced bone resorption and reduced bone formation in the trabecular bones and decreased thickness in the cortical bones. Moreover, these mice

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JEAN-MICHEL GAREL, CHARLYNE REBUT-BONNETON and FLORIAN DELBARRE

Fetal bone resorption was measured by an organ culture technique using fetuses from thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) pregnant rats to investigate the roles of fetal and maternal hormones in the regulation of basal bone resorption in utero. Thyroparathyroidectomized female rats were treated with thyroxine and/or metabolites of vitamin D3. Basal bone resorption was greatly increased in fetuses from TPTX mothers. Administration of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,24,25-trihydroxycholecalciferol to TPTX female rats normalized the basal bone resorption of the fetus whereas injection of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was without effect. Treatment of the TPTX mothers with thyroxine was also shown to normalize basal bone resorption in the fetus.

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C. Rebut-Bonneton, J. Demignon, B. Amor and L. Miravet

Fetal bone resorption was measured by an organ culture technique using fetuses from intact or thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats. These experiments were performed to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-DHCC) and salmon calcitonin (SCT) in pregnant rats, on both fetal growth and fetal bone resorption.

Pregnant rats were given 0·1–0·5 μg 1,25-DHCC per day from day 17 of gestation: in intact rats bone resorption was increased and fetal growth decreased; 1,25-DHCC probably modified fetal bone resorption in the absence of fetal parathyroid secretion.

Infusion of SCT in minipumps (30 mu./h) did not modify plasma calcium levels in either the mother or fetuses, neither was bone resorption altered. In 1,25-DHCC-treated rats, SCT infusion resulted in an increase in fetal weight and a decrease in fetal bone resorption. On the other hand, SCT infusion was found to facilitate phosphate accumulation in fetuses.

At the end of the SCT infusion the SCT concentration was 450 ng/l in maternal plasma and 553± 60 ng/l in fetal plasma. Salmon calcitonin was shown to cross the placental barrier in the rats; it may interact with the effects of 1,25-DHCC in the fetus.

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T. J. Allain, T. J. Chambers, A. M. Flanagan and A. M. McGregor

ABSTRACT

Tri-iodothyronine (T3) increases bone resorption in vivo and in vitro. In order to understand further the mechanisms by which this occurs we studied the effects of T3 at concentrations in the range of 1 pmol/l–1 μmol/l on bone resorption by osteoclasts isolated from neonatal rat long bones. Osteoclasts were disaggregated and incubated either with or without UMR 106 cells or with mixed bone cells. We found that there was no effect of T3 on bone resorption by osteoclasts incubated alone or co-cultured with UMR 106 cells. However, in culture with mixed bone cells there was a significant relationship between the concentration of T3 and bone resorption (r = 0·54, P= 0·01) The greatest effect was observed at a T3 concentration of 1 μmol/l at which a 1·8-fold increase in resorption was seen compared with control (P <0·005; paired t-test). We conclude that the ability of T3 to increase osteoclastic bone resorption is not due to a direct action of T3 on osteoclasts but is mediated by another cell present in bone. The observation that UMR 106 cells are unable to mediate this effect suggests that either the mediating cell is not osteoblastic or the phenotype of UMR 106 does not conform to the phenotype of osteoblastic cells that mediate the T3 responsiveness of bone.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 133, 327–331

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A Tumber, S Papaioannou, J Breckon, MC Meikle, JJ Reynolds and PA Hill

The aims of this study were to identify the role and sites of action of serine proteinases (SPs) in bone resorption, a process which involves a cascade of events, the central step of which is the removal of bone matrix by osteoclasts (OCs). This resorbing activity, however, is also determined by recruitment of new OCs to future resorption sites and removal of the osteoid layer by osteoblasts (OBs), which enables OCs to gain access to the underlying mineralized bone. The resorption systems we have studied consisted of (i) neonatal calvarial explants, (ii) isolated OCs cultured on ivory slices, (iii) mouse OBs cultured on either radiolabelled type I collagen films or bone-like matrix, (iv) bone marrow cultures to assess OC formation and (v) 17-day-old fetal mouse metatarsal bone rudiments to assess OC migration and fusion. Two separate SP inhibitors, aprotinin and alpha(2)-antiplasmin dose-dependently inhibited (45)Ca release from neonatal calvarial explants: aprotinin (10(-6) M) was the most effective SP inhibitor, producing a maximum inhibitory effect of 55.9%.Neither of the SP inhibitors influenced either OC formation or OC resorptive activity. In contrast, each SP inhibitor dose-dependently inhibited OB-mediated degradation of both type I collagen fibrils and non-mineralized bone matrix. In 17-day-old metatarsal explants aprotinin produced a 55% reduction in the migration of OCs from the periosteum to the mineralized matrix after 3 days in culture but after 6 days in culture aprotinin was without effect on OC migration. Primary mouse osteoblasts expressed mRNA for urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), tIssue type plasminogen activator (tPA), the type I receptor for uPA, plasminogen activator inhibitor types I and II and the broad spectrum serine proteinase inhibitor, protease nexin I. In situ hybridization demonstrated expression of tPA and uPA in osteoclasts disaggregated from 6-day-old mouse long bones. We propose that the regulation of these various enzyme systems within bone tIssue determines the sites where bone resorption will be initiated.

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R Hatton, M Stimpel and T J Chambers

Abstract

During bone resorption, osteoclasts are closely associated with endothelial cells. The latter are able to produce several agents that regulate bone resorption. In view of the increasing evidence that angiotensin II, which can be generated by endothelial cells, has actions outside the traditional renin-angiotensin system, we tested the effect of angiotensin II on bone resorption. Angiotensin II showed no effect either on osteoclast formation or on bone resorption by isolated osteoclasts. However, in co-cultures of osteoclasts with calvarial or MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, and in osteoclastic cultures co-cultured with other bone cells obtained by prolonged sedimentation, angiotensin II stimulated bone resorption to a similar degree to that observed with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3. Stimulation of resorption was noted at concentrations of 10−7 m and above. We found that angiotensin I also stimulated bone resorption in co-cultures of osteoclasts with osteoblastic cells, and that this action was inhibited by inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme. These results identify angiotensin I and II as potent stimulators of osteoclastic bone resorption, and raise the possibility that bone might contain a tissue-renin-angiotensin system that might play a role in the regulation of bone resorption.

Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 152, 5–10

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CP Carron, DM Meyer, VW Engleman, JG Rico, PG Ruminski, RL Ornberg, WF Westlin and GA Nickols

Osteoclasts are actively motile on bone surfaces and undergo alternating cycles of migration and resorption. Osteoclast interaction with the extracellular matrix plays a key role in the osteoclast resorptive process and a substantial body of evidence suggests that integrin receptors are important in osteoclast function. These integrin receptors bind to the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence found in a variety of extracellular matrix proteins and it is well established that the interaction of osteoclast alpha v beta 3 integrin with the RGD motif within bone matrix proteins is important in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, we characterized the effects of two synthetic peptidomimetic antagonists of alpha v beta 3, SC-56631 and SC-65811, on rabbit osteoclast adhesion to purified matrix proteins and bone, and on bone resorption in vitro. SC-56631 and SC-65811 are potent inhibitors of vitronectin binding to purified alpha v beta 3. Both SC-56631 and SC-65811 inhibited osteoclast adhesion to osteopontin- and vitronectin-coated surfaces and time-lapse video microscopy showed that osteoclasts rapidly retract from osteopontin-coated surfaces when exposed to SC-56631 and SC-65811. SC-56631 and SC-65811 blocked osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in a dose-responsive manner. Further analysis showed that SC-65811 and SC-56631 reduced the number of resorption pits produced per osteoclast and the average pit size. SC-65811 was a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption and the combination of reduced pit number and size led to a 90% inhibition of bone resorption. Surprisingly, however, osteoclasts treated with SC-65811, SC-56631 or the disintegrin echistatin, at concentrations that inhibit bone resorption did not inhibit osteoclast adhesion to bone. These results suggest that alphavbeta3 antagonists inhibited bone resorption by decreasing osteoclast bone resorptive activity or efficiency but not by inhibiting osteoclast adhesion to bone per se.

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BS Moonga, OA Adebanjo, HJ Wang, S Li, XB Wu, B Troen, A Inzerillo, E Abe, C Minkin, CL Huang and M Zaidi

The effects of the related cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and oncostatin-M on bone resorption and cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling were compared in isolated rat osteoclasts. In the traditional disaggregated osteoclast (pit) assay, IL-6 and LIF, but not oncostatin-M, conserved the bone resorption otherwise inhibited by high extracellular [Ca(2+)] (15 mM). It produced a paradoxical, concentration-dependent stimulation of resorption by elevated extracellular Ca(2+). In the micro-isolated single osteoclast resorption assay, IL-6, high [Ca(2+)] or IL-6 plus high [Ca(2+)] all increased pit formation. In contrast, the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-specific agonist antibody MT-18 inhibited bone resorption in a concentration-dependent manner (1:500 to 1:500 000). MT-18 triggered cytosolic Ca(2+) signals in fura 2-loaded osteoclasts within approximately 10 min of application. Each cytosolic Ca(2+) transient began with a peak deflection that persisted in Ca(2+)-free, EGTA-containing extracellular medium, consistent with a release of intracellularly stored Ca(2+). This was followed by a sustained elevation of cytosolic [Ca(2+)] that was abolished in Ca(2+)-free medium, as expected from an entry of extracellular Ca(2+), and by the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Ni(2+). The inclusion of either IL-6 or soluble human (sh) IL-6R specifically reversed both the above effects of MT-18, confirming that both effects were specific for the IL-6R. The findings suggest that IL-6R activation by IL-6 stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption either by reversing the inhibitory effect of high extracellular Ca(2+) in stromal-containing systems or itself stimulating bone resorption along with Ca(2+) by micro-isolated osteoclasts. In contrast, activation of the IL-6R by an agonist antibody produces an inhibition of bone resorption and an associated triggering of the cytosolic Ca(2+) signals previously associated with regulation of bone resorptive function in other situations.

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HH Conaway, D Grigorie and UH Lerner

Differential effects on in vitro bone resorption were observed when the glucocorticoids, hydrocortisone and dexamethasone, were added to neonatal mouse calvariae treated with either parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3, all trans-retinoic acid (t-RA), or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Bone resorption was assessed by analyzing either the release of 45Ca from [45Ca]CaCl2 prelabeled calvarial bones or the release of 3H from [3H]proline prelabeled calvariae. At PGE2 concentrations of 3 x 10(-8) and 3 x 10(-7) mol/l, co-treatment with either 10(-6) mol/l dexamethasone or 10(-6) mol/l hydrocortisone caused additive 45Ca release from neonatal mouse calvariae. In contrast, synergistic release from mouse calvarial bones of both 45Ca and 3H was found after either 10(-6) mol/l hydrocortisone or 10(-6) mol/l dexamethasone was combined with 3 x 10(-11) mol/l PTH treatment for 120 h. Dose-response studies indicated that the synergistic stimulation of 45Ca release from neonatal mouse calvariae by glucocorticoids and PTH could be elicited at glucocorticoid concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/l and at PTH concentrations of 10(-11) to 10(-9) mol/l. Progesterone and RU 38486 (a derivative of 19-nortestosterone with antiglucocorticoid activity) blocked the synergism noted with glucocorticoid and PTH co-treatment, suggesting that interaction between the steroids and PTH was dependent on glucocorticoid receptor interaction. Addition of either 10(-6) mol/l hydrocortisone or 10(-6) mol/l dexamethasone to neonatal mouse calvariae treated with 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (10(-11) and 10(-10) mol/l) also resulted in synergistic stimulation of 45Ca release. In contrast to these observations, the stimulatory effect of t-RA (10(-8) mol/l) on 45Ca release from calvarial bones was abolished in the presence of 10(-6) mol/l dexamethasone. These results suggest that an important role of glucocorticoids may be to synergistically potentiate bone resorption stimulated by PTH and 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3, but indicate an opposing interaction between the glucocorticoids and bone resorptive retinoids.