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Sabina Börner, Michael Derno, Sandra Hacke, Ulrike Kautzsch, Christine Schäff, Sint ThanThan, Hideto Kuwayama, Harald M Hammon, Monika Röntgen, Rosemarie Weikard, Christa Kühn, Armin Tuchscherer and Björn Kuhla

higher LFC have higher preprandial plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin, higher acyl:total ghrelin ratios, lower plasma TG concentrations and a lower respiratory quotient, both before and after parturition. The ratio of acyl:total ghrelin correlated with

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Kishor Devalaraja-Narashimha and Babu J Padanilam

-sensitive flowmeter. Variables provided by this measurement include VO 2 , VCO 2 , respiratory quotient (RQ), and HEAT ( Strader et al . 2004 ). To calculate oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), carbon dioxide production (VCO 2 ), and RQ (ratio of VCO 2 to VO 2 ), gas

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T J Kowalski, B D Spar, L Markowitz, M Maguire, A Golovko, S Yang, C Farley, J A Cook, G Tetzloff, L Hoos, R A Del Vecchio, T M Kazdoba, M F McCool, J J Hwa, L A Hyde, H Davis, G Vassileva, J A Hedrick and E L Gustafson

–28-week-old wild-type ( n =8) and Tg ( n =8) mice were acclimated to the chambers for 4 days prior to measurement, and were monitored in the fed state, during 24-h food deprivation, and during 24 h of refeeding. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was calculated as

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Sabina Paglialunga, Patrick Schrauwen, Christian Roy, Esther Moonen-Kornips, Huiling Lu, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Yves Deshaies, Denis Richard and Katherine Cianflone

apparatus (Lunar Corporation, Madison, WI, USA) at 21 weeks of age. Mice were given an i.m. injection for general anesthesia before the scan. Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), carbon dioxide production (VCO 2 ), and the respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured over

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Mammary gland slices (incubated in vitro) from hypophysectomized rats used less glucose and produced more lactic acid than similar slices from normal animals. The accumulation of lactic acid was observed in the presence of glucose or glucose plus acetate as added substrates, but not in acetate alone or in the absence of added substrates. Hypophysectomy led to a substantial decrease in the respiratory quotient of the mammary gland slices. Neither ovariectomy, adrenalectomy, thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy nor sham hypophysectomy caused the appearance of the above metabolic changes in mammary gland slices.

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The reproductive physiology of the armadillo has been studied with special emphasis on the hormonal problems related to the phenomenon of delayed implantation which occurs in this species.

Ovulation occurs spontaneously in the unmated animal, and a corpus luteum is formed which is grossly indistinguishable from, and histologically similar to, the corpus luteum of pregnancy. Both this and the corpus luteum normally present during the period of delayed implantation are functional, as indicated by the increased respiratory quotient of the luteal tissue and the high progestin activity of the serum.

It is tentatively suggested that the failure of the blastocyst to implant is due to lack of a proper ratio of oestrogen and progestin and not to an insufficiency of progestin alone.

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M. E. Symonds, D. C. Andrews and P. Johnson


Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), heart rate and the arterial plasma concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3′-tri-iodothyronine (T3), TSH, insulin, cortisol and GH were measured before and after feeding a formula milk diet to lambs aged 9, 21, 33 and 46 days. In all age groups, VO2, VCO2 and heart rate increased significantly following feeding and this effect was greatest at 9 days of age. Both VO2 and VCO2 before and after feeding decreased with age. Plasma concentrations of T3 before feeding did not change with age, but plasma T3 levels after feeding were significantly higher in lambs aged 9 days compared with 33 and 46 days. There was no effect of feeding on TSH or age on plasma TSH and T4 concentrations. In all age groups, glucose concentration increased after feeding and was paralleled by a rise in insulin concentration. At 9 and 21 days of age plasma glucose and insulin concentrations reached a plateau after the initial postprandial increase and together with a rise in respiratory quotient was indicative of a stimulation of carbohydrate oxidation. Plasma concentrations of GH increased after feeding at 21 days and older, when the mean growth rate was also stimulated by 75%. Basal metabolic rate and dietary-induced thermogenesis both decreased with age and, as a result, metabolism associated with an increase in GH levels after feeding became more efficient in terms of growth rate after 21 days. It is therefore concluded that there are major endocrine and cardiorespiratory changes in response to feeding of the young lamb which are important in stimulating and/or facilitating its growth and development.

Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 123,295–302

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Tetsuya Kouno, Nobuteru Akiyama, Takahito Ito, Tomohiko Okuda, Isamu Nanchi, Mitsuru Notoya, Shogo Oka and Hideo Yukioka

(VO 2 ) and carbon dioxide production (VCO 2 ) were measured over 40-min intervals by mass spectrometry (ARCO-1000A, Arco System, Kashiwa, Japan) for 24 h beginning from 1000 h. Respiratory quotient (RQ=VCO 2 /VO 2 ) and energy expenditure (3

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Natalia Pavón, Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice, Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez, Cristina Uribe-Alvarez, Nadia A Rivero-Segura, Edgar Ricardo Vazquez-Martínez, Marco Cerbón, Eduardo Martínez-Abundis, Juan Carlos Torres-Narvaez, Raúl Martínez-Memije, Francisco-Javier Roldán-Gómez and Salvador Uribe-Carvajal

/mL; final volume was 1.5 mL. Respiratory control (RC) was calculated as the quotient between the rate of oxygen consumption in state 3 (ADP-stimulated respiration) and the rate in state 4 (after ADP pulse is entirely phosphorylated and respiration shifts to

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Kanta Kon, Hiroshi Tsuneki, Hisakatsu Ito, Yoshinori Takemura, Kiyofumi Sato, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Assaf Rudich, Takahiro Maeda, Tsutomu Wada and Toshiyasu Sasaoka

5, Molecular Devices), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Measurements of energy expenditure Daily changes in food intake, locomotor activity, O 2 consumption, CO 2 production, energy expenditure and the respiratory quotient were