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Anyonya R Guntur and Clifford J Rosen

developments in skeletal biology has been the establishment of the skeleton as a modulator of glucose and metabolic homeostasis ( Lee et al . 2007 , Ferron et al . 2010 , Clemens & Karsenty 2011 ). For example, a recent study in which FOXO1 was deleted only

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K J Oldknow, V E MacRae and C Farquharson

Evolution and bone The vertebrate skeleton is one of the largest mammalian organs, providing the framework of the body, supporting the softer tissues and creating points of attachment for most skeletal muscles. In addition, the skeleton provides

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Marumi Osuna, Yokiko Sonobe, Eisuke Itakura, Sukumar Devnath, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato and Kinji Inoue

from rat cerebral tissue . Journal of Cell Biology 85 890 – 902 . doi:10.1083/jcb.85.3.890 . Mizuno Y Chang H Umeda K Niwa A Iwasa T Awaya T Fukada S Yamamoto H Yamanaka S Nakahata T 2010 Generation of skeletal muscle stem

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Meng Guo, Yuna Li, Yan Wang, Zhenkun Li, Xiaohong Li, Peikun Zhao, Changlong Li, Jianyi Lv, Xin Liu, Xiaoyan Du and Zhenwen Chen

Introduction As a major metabolic tissue, skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of the total body mass and plays a predominant role in postprandial glucose disposal in humans ( DeFronzo et al. 1981 ). Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is an

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Sergio Di Meo, Susanna Iossa and Paola Venditti

-149 ) Goldberg AL 1968 Protein synthesis during work-induced growth of skeletal muscle . Journal of Cell Biology 36 653 – 658 . ( doi:10.1083/jcb.36.3.653 ) Goldstein MS Mullic V Huddlestun B Levine R 1953 Action of muscular work

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Yue Chen, Jeffrey D Zajac and Helen E MacLean

cells in skeletal muscle. Journal of Cell Biology 159 123 –134. Beato M , Chalepakis G, Schauer M & Slater EP 1989 DNA regulatory elements for steroid hormones. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 32 737 –747

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Lidong Zhai and Joseph L Messina

). Reduced signaling through this pathway can cause insulin resistance. Previous data from our laboratory indicate that trauma and hemorrhage induces the rapid development of insulin resistance in the liver and skeletal muscle of adult rats ( Ma et al . 2003

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M Granado, A I Martín, T Priego, A López-Calderón and M A Villanúa

). Cachexia, which also prevails in other situations such as burns, sepsis and cancer, is characterized by anorexia and tissue wasting, reflected essentially in a loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The skeletal muscle loss can be due to both

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Masahiro Ogawa, Tomoya Kitakaze, Naoki Harada and Ryoichi Yamaji

Jansson E Esbjörnsson M 2009 Expression of both oestrogen receptor α and β in human skeletal muscle tissue . Histochemistry and Cell Biology 131 181 – 189 . ( doi:10.1007/s00418-008-0512-x )

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Laura D Brown

hypertrophy in rats . Journal of Applied Physiology 84 1716 – 1722 . Allen RE Rankin LL 1990 Regulation of satellite cells during skeletal muscle growth and development . Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 194 81