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Gabriela Capllonch-Amer, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Ana M Proenza, Isabel Lladó, Magdalena Gianotti, and Francisco J García-Palmer

Introduction Sexual dimorphism in mitochondrial functionality has been described in many rat tissues such as liver, adipose tissue, brain, and skeletal muscle ( Colom et al . 2007 a , b , Valle et al . 2007 a , b , Gómez-Pérez et al . 2008

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Stephen P Ashcroft, Gareth Fletcher, Ashleigh M Philp, Carl Jenkinson, Shatarupa Das, Philip M Hansbro, Philip J Atherton, and Andrew Philp

of skeletal muscle function ( Girgis et al. 2013 ). Within human populations, multiple observational studies have reported a positive association between serum 25(OH)D, skeletal muscle strength and lower extremity function in older individuals

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Yuriko Kitajima and Yusuke Ono

. 2015 ). Thus, understanding the regulation of satellite cells is critical to elucidate the mechanisms in skeletal muscle maintenance. Several studies have reported that estrogens appear to favor muscle regeneration after injury ( Diel 2014 ). Estrogens

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Juthamard Surapongchai, Mujalin Prasannarong, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr, and Vitoon Saengsirisuwan

Introduction Insulin resistance of skeletal muscle represents a major defect in the maintenance of euglycemia and is often accompanied by a variety of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities, including glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia

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Kok Lim Kua, Shanming Hu, Chunlin Wang, Jianrong Yao, Diana Dang, Alexander B Sawatzke, Jeffrey L Segar, Kai Wang, and Andrew W Norris

hyperglycemia rapidly developed skeletal muscle insulin resistance while still in utero . The insulin signaling defects persisted through postnatal life, localized to skeletal muscle. Uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal hyperinsulinism did not have these

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J Kwakkel, H C van Beeren, M T Ackermans, M C Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, E Fliers, W M Wiersinga, and A Boelen

prohormone thyroxine (T 4 ) into the active hormone T 3 by outer-ring deiodination. D2 is expressed in brain, pituitary, skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue, and placenta and is present as an active dimer in the endoplasmic reticulum ( Kohrle 2000

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John-Paul Fuller-Jackson and Belinda A Henry

energy expenditure is reduced adaptive thermogenesis ( Rosenbaum et al . 2008 , Camps et al . 2015 , Henry et al . 2017 ), which occurs in both skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT). To investigate the specific metabolic adaptations that

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Ishita Bakshi, Eurwin Suryana, Lewin Small, Lake-Ee Quek, Amanda E Brandon, Nigel Turner, and Gregory J Cooney

Introduction Reduced levels of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis are a well characterised feature of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes ( Bouche et al . 2004 , Abdul-Ghani & DeFronzo 2010 ). In general, the flux through glycolysis is

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Flavia F Bloise, Aline Cordeiro, and Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho

Introduction Skeletal muscle (SM) is widely distributed and represents approximately 40% of human body mass ( Kim et al . 2016 ); therefore, any change in the energetic profile of SM has important effects on systemic physiology. Indeed, SM is

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Nele Cielen, Nele Heulens, Karen Maes, Geert Carmeliet, Chantal Mathieu, Wim Janssens, and Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez

Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not only a lung disease, but also associates with several comorbidities. Among them, skeletal muscle dysfunction is of major concern, as it contributes, independently of lung