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C E Koch, M S Bartlang, J T Kiehn, L Lucke, N Naujokat, C Helfrich-Förster, S O Reber and H Oster

unemployment – factors that are difficult to recreate in experimental animal models ( Cohen et al . 2007 , Harris 2015 ). A widely used rodent social stress paradigm is ‘repeated social defeat’, whereby male animals are repeatedly exposed to subordination by

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Georgia Balsevich, Andres Uribe, Klaus V Wagner, Jakob Hartmann, Sara Santarelli, Christiana Labermaier and Mathias V Schmidt

control groups, balanced for body weight (chronic stress: high-fat diet (HFD) ( n =10), chow ( n =10) and control: HFD ( n =11), chow ( n =10)) ( Fig. 1 A). Mice were challenged with 3 weeks of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) or left under control

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Manuela S Bartlang, Inga D Neumann, David A Slattery, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Dominik Kraus, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster and Stefan O Reber

& Westenberg (2000) ). In support, and unlike physical stressors, the hypothalamo-pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses to repeated psychosocial stressors, such as intermittent social defeat (SD) in rats, do not habituate ( Tornatzky & Miczek 1993

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Madeleine R Di Natale, Alita Soch, Ilvana Ziko, Simone N De Luca, Sarah J Spencer and Luba Sominsky

hypothalamus (PVN) increase circulating corticosterone, in male mice given chronic social defeat stress ( Patterson et al. 2013 b ). However, others have shown immobilisation stress increases corticosterone to a similar degree after d -Lys3 (i.p.) as it

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Dóra Zelena, Ágnes Domokos, Subodh Kumar Jain, Ryan Jankord and Ludmila Filaretova

restraint stress in a polyethylene tube as previously described ( Zelena et al . 2003 a ). Stressor duration was 1 h and blood samples were collected before (at 0 min), during (at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60) and after (at 120 min) restraint stress. Social defeat The

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Paula J Brunton, Katie M Sullivan, David Kerrigan, John A Russell, Jonathan R Seckl and Amanda J Drake

carboxykinase ( Pepck (Pck1) ; Nyirenda et al . 1998 ). These changes may be important in driving the observed alterations in glucose–insulin homoeostasis ( Nyirenda et al . 1998 ). We have recently shown that, in rats, exposure to social stress in late

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Viktorija Gustaityte, Martina Winkler, Ines Stölting and Walter Raasch

.1016/0031-9384(94)90055-8 Meerlo P De Boer SF Koolhaas JM Daan S Van Den Hoofdakker RH 1996 Changes in daily rhythms of body temperature and activity after a single social defeat in rats . Physiology and Behavior 59 735 – 739 . (

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Liselotte Fransson, Stephanie Franzén, Victoria Rosengren, Petra Wolbert, Åke Sjöholm and Henrik Ortsäter

Abizaid A 2013 Central ghrelin signaling mediates the metabolic response of C57BL/6 male mice to chronic social defeat stress . Endocrinology 154 1080 – 1091 . ( doi:10.1210/en.2012-1834 ) Quan ZY Walser M 1992 Effects of corticosterone

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Hiroshi Nagano, Yuki Sobue, Hayato Matsuyama, Shoichiro Saito, Hiroki Sakai, Firoj Alom, Yasuyuki Tanahashi, Toshiaki Ishii and Toshihiro Unno

that certain stressors such as forced swimming and social defeat induced increase of mRNA level and intranuclear AVP secretion in only the PVN but not the SON ( Wotjak et al. 1996 , 2001 ). Nonetheless, such stressors did not increase plasma AVP