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Stephan Werth, Helge Müller-Fielitz and Walter Raasch

.00265.2004) Brinkmann V 2007 Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors in health and disease: mechanistic insights from gene deletion studies and reverse pharmacology . Pharmacology and Therapeutics 115 84 – 105 . ( doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007

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O Sukocheva and C Wadham

, G-protein-coupled receptor 30; MMPs, matrix metalloproteases; cdc42, cell division control protein 42; Src, non-receptor tyrosine kinase; SphK1, human sphingosine kinase 1; S1P, sphingosine-1-phosphate. Oestrogen stimulates SphK1 activity in a

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Wendy B Bollag

stable acetylcholine receptor agonist), endothelin-1, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and vasopressin have all been reported to activate phosphoinositide hydrolysis to stimulate adrenocortical cell steroid hormone production ( Kojima et al . 1986 , Woodcock

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Libor Vítek and Martin Haluzík

in energy homeostasis. CAR, constitutive androstane receptor; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; FXR, farnesoid X receptor; M3R, muscarinic M3 receptor, PXR, pregnane X receptor; S1PR2, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2; TGR5, G protein

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Melyssa R Bratton, James W Antoon, Bich N Duong, Daniel E Frigo, Syreeta Tilghman, Bridgette M Collins-Burow, Steven Elliott, Yan Tang, Lilia I Melnik, Ling Lai, Jawed Alam, Barbara S Beckman, Steven M Hill, Brian G Rowan, John A McLachlan and Matthew E Burow

events, including the MAPK and PI3K–AKT pathways ( Nava et al . 2002 , Marinissen et al . 2003 , Radeff-Huang et al . 2004 ). For example, sphingosine kinase type 1 (SPHK1), the enzyme that phosphorylates sphingosine to form sphingosine 1 phosphate

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Karen Forbes and Melissa Westwood

receptor exerts these effects is unclear, although work in other systems has suggested that activation of IGF2R leads to the generation of sphingosine-1-phosphate and consequent signaling through receptors coupled to Gi2 protein ( Murayama et al . 1990

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Toni Welsh, Matrika Johnson, Lijuan Yi, Huiqing Tan, Roksana Rahman, Amy Merlino, Tamas Zakar and Sam Mesiano

Z Leiber D 2008 Signaling pathways involved in sphingosine kinase activation and sphingosine-1-phosphate release in rat myometrium in late pregnancy: role in the induction of cyclooxygenase 2 . Endocrinology 149 4669 – 4679 . doi:10

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Laura E Pascal, Khalid Z Masoodi, June Liu, Xiaonan Qiu, Qiong Song, Yujuan Wang, Yachen Zang, Tiejun Yang, Yao Wang, Lora H Rigatti, Uma Chandran, Leandro M Colli, Ricardo Z N Vencio, Yi Lu, Jian Zhang and Zhou Wang


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P J D Delhanty, B C J van der Eerden, M van der Velde, C Gauna, H A P Pols, H Jahr, H Chiba, A J van der Lely and J P T M van Leeuwen

The phospholipids sphingosine-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid prevent apoptosis in osteoblastic cells via a signaling pathway involving G(i) proteins and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Endocrinology 143 4755 –4763

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P A Hill and A Tumber

Journal 10 1388 – 1397 . Takeshita A Watanabe A Takada Y Hanazawa S 2000 Selective stimulation by ceramide of the expression of the alpha isoform of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors in osteoblastic cells. A role of sphingosine 1