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Rodrigo S Fortunato, Andrea C F Ferreira, Fabio Hecht, Corinne Dupuy and Denise P Carvalho

Introduction Thyroid diseases are more prevalent in women than in men. In the general population, the Framingham survey indicated that the prevalence of diffuse or nodular goiter is 6.4% in women and 1.5% in men ( Vander et al . 1968 ), and the

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Miguel A Zaballos and Pilar Santisteban

Introduction Thyroid cancer remains the most common endocrine malignancy worldwide and its incidence and mortality has increased steadily over the last four decades. Improvements in diagnostic techniques that allow a more efficient detection

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R G Ahmed

are mainly stored in the adipose tissue, with elimination half-lives of 6–10 years ( Norstrom et al . 2010 ). Importantly, the thyroid axis appears to be vulnerable to disruption by PCBs ( Murk et al . 2013 ) and PCB metabolites ( Sinjari & Darnerud

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Celia Siu, Sam Wiseman, Sitanshu Gakkhar, Alireza Heravi-Moussavi, Misha Bilenky, Annaick Carles, Thomas Sierocinski, Angela Tam, Eric Zhao, Katayoon Kasaian, Richard A Moore, Andrew J Mungall, Blair Walker, Thomas Thomson, Marco A Marra, Martin Hirst and Steven J M Jones

Introduction The normal human thyroid is a homogeneous tissue mainly composed of two cell types: follicular cells and parafollicular cells. Thyroid follicular cells are epithelial cells responsible for the production, storage and secretion of

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Mark E Peterson

spontaneous thyrotoxicosis develops frequently enough to allow a system investigation into its pathogenesis. Because feline hyperthyroidism most often results from benign adenomatous nodules of the thyroid gland, it is both clinically and pathologically

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Xianghui Meng, Shuhang Xu, Guofang Chen, Michael Derwahl and Chao Liu

response to metformin therapy and increased again when metformin was discontinued ( Vigersky et al. 2006 ). Later, this finding has been confirmed by several studies. The novel effects of metformin on the thyroid were not confined to hypothyroidism

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Marian Ludgate

In a paper entitled ‘Influence of thyroidectomy on thyroxine metabolism and turnover rate in rats’, Nagao et al . (2011) have investigated thyroid hormone kinetics in the hypothyroid state. In a number of carefully performed studies, which rely

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Rosalba Senese, Federica Cioffi, Pieter de Lange, Fernando Goglia and Antonia Lanni

Introduction General notions The thyroid gland produces two main iodothyronines: tetraiodo- l -thyronine (T 4 ) and triiodo- l -thyronine (T 3 ). In humans, T 4 is synthesized entirely within the thyroid and acts as a pro-hormone to generate T 3

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Andréa Gonçalves Trentin

& Robitaille 2003 , Nedergaard et al. 2003 , Bachoo et al. 2004 ). Astrocytes are mediators of thyroid hormone metabolism in the brain The importance of thyroid hormone for normal brain development is well documented

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J Patel, K Landers, H Li, R H Mortimer and K Richard

development was made very much later ( Cranefield 1962 , Morreale de Escobar et al . 2004 ). Thyroid hormones (thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 )) are essential for the development and maintenance of normal physiological processes, especially