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Yi Lin and Zhongjie Sun

Introduction It is estimated that diabetes affects about 150 million people worldwide, and this figure is expected to be doubled in the next 20 years ( Zimmet et al . 2001 ). About 90–95% of all North American cases of diabetes are type 2 diabetes

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Paige V Bauer and Frank A Duca

Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes has more than doubled since 1980, with over 382 million affected individuals worldwide, in conjunction with an increase in obesity rates and the spread of a western lifestyle ( Scully 2012 ). Given

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Haijiang Wu, Xinna Deng, Yonghong Shi, Ye Su, Jinying Wei, and Huijun Duan

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic isorder characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion deficiency due to β-cell dysfunction. The global prevalence of T2DM is

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Yoko Yagishita, Akira Uruno, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Thomas W Kensler, and Masayuki Yamamoto

for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in humans ( Fox et al . 2012 ). However, little is known about the impact of Nrf2 on inflammation in type 1 diabetes. Nrf2 has been shown to modify the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders ( Chartoumpekis

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Malin Fex, Lisa M Nicholas, Neelanjan Vishnu, Anya Medina, Vladimir V Sharoyko, David G Nicholls, Peter Spégel, and Hindrik Mulder

Introduction Seminal work in the 1960s and 1970s established that insulin secretion is deficient in type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( Bagdade et al . 1967 , Simpson et al . 1968 ). In the last decade, a number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS

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Sheree D Martin and Sean L McGee

disease cluster, numerous epidemiological studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes are at a greater risk of developing breast cancer ( Xue & Michels 2007 ). The incidence of type 2 diabetes has been steadily increasing for decades and

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Laura Marroqui, Eva Tudurí, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena, Iván Quesada, Ángel Nadal, and Reinaldo Sousa dos Santos

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, lifelong condition characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from persistent insulin resistance (IR) and/or insufficient insulin production due to β-cell dysfunction or death ( Prentki & Nolan

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Maaike M Roefs, Françoise Carlotti, Katherine Jones, Hannah Wills, Alexander Hamilton, Michael Verschoor, Joanna M Williams Durkin, Laura Garcia-Perez, Melissa F Brereton, Laura McCulloch, Marten A Engelse, Paul R V Johnson, Barbara C Hansen, Kevin Docherty, Eelco J P de Koning, and Anne Clark

proposed that vimentin expression was linked to aetiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) ( White et al. 2013 ). However, it is not known if this aberrant expression of a mesenchymal protein is a more widespread feature of T2DM or how vimentin expression is

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K Fosgerau, P Galle, T Hansen, A Albrechtsen, C de Lemos Rieper, B Klarlund Pedersen, L Kongskov Larsen, A Randrup Thomsen, O Pedersen, M Bagge Hansen, and A Steensberg

Introduction A complex interplay of pre- and post-natal environmental factors and polygenetics is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes ( Andersen et al . 2005 ). Prominent pathological features include insulin resistance, inability in a

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Jung Han Kim, Taryn P Stewart, Morvarid Soltani-Bejnood, Luan Wang, Jennifer M Fortuna, Ola A Mostafa, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Ahmed M Shoieb, Michael F McEntee, Yun Wang, Lawrence Bechtel, and Jürgen K Naggert

risk for mortality as well as morbidity. In 2002, it is estimated that 186 000 deaths in US were attributed to diabetes ( Hogan et al. 2003 ). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common form of human diabetes, accounting for approximately 90% of cases