The interactions between broody behaviour and changes in concentrations of plasma prolactin and LH were investigated in bantam hens. Adoption of newly hatched chicks caused incubating hens to leave their nests and prevented plasma prolactin decreasing as rapidly as in hens deprived of their nests and not given chicks. Further, the hens allowed to rear chicks came back into lay later (P< 0·001) than the hens not allowed chicks. Plasma prolactin decreased and plasma LH increased in hens deprived of their nests: these changes were reversed when the hens re-nested. The changes in plasma LH and prolactin in nest-deprived and re-nesting birds were not always synchronous; this was particularly clear immediately after nest deprivation when the increase in plasma LH preceded the decrease in the plasma prolactin. Readiness to incubate disappeared between 48 and 72 h after nest deprivation and corresponded with the time when plasma prolactin decreased to baseline values. Administration of ovine prolactin depressed (P<0·01) the initial increase in plasma LH after nest deprivation, but repeated administration of prolactin for up to 72 h failed to suppress plasma LH to the values found in incubating hens. Repeated administration of ovine prolactin at 5- to 8-h intervals for 72 h maintained readiness to incubate in nest-deprived hens. It is concluded that the secretion of prolactin in broody hens is facilitated by the presence of chicks and that increased concentrations of plasma prolactin maintain incubation behaviour. In incubating hens the secretion of LH and prolactin may be partly regulated independently. In addition, LH secretion may also be inhibited by increased plasma prolactin.