This study provides the first report that the same cytokine (interleukin-1 (IL-1)) can induce opposite effects on cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and Cdk inhibitors (Cdkis) in the G1 phase even in the same type of cancer cells (papillary thyroid carcinoma cells). Cell cycle analysis revealed an increase in NIM1 cells and a decrease in NPA cells in the S and G2+M phases after treatment with IL-1alpha. The addition of IL-1alpha to NIM1 cells reduced the expression of p16 and p21 protein and induced the expression of Cdk2 and Cdk4 protein, which leads to the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. The addition of IL-1alpha to NPA cells induced the expression of p27 protein and reduced the expression of Cdk2 protein, which leads to induction of p107 protein expression. It is of interest that p21 protein expression was not observed in NPA cells. These results suggest that several Cdks and Cdkis play a regulatory role in the G1 cell cycle progression and arrest induced by IL-1alpha in thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
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