In order to determine the possible role of endogenous oxytocin in controlling electrolyte and water excretion in animals whose renal function is being assessed by invasive techniques, rats were anaesthetized and subjected to micropuncture surgery. Clearance measurements were made in the presence and absence of the potent oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4), Orn(8), Tyr(NH(2))(9)]-vasotocin. In rats infused with vehicle alone, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sodium excretion and urine flow rate remained stable. In contrast, in antagonist-treated rats GFR was modestly reduced (P<0.05), and there were large falls in both absolute and fractional sodium excretion (P<0.01 in each case) and absolute and fractional water excretion (P<0.05 in each case), indicating effects on both filtered load and fractional tubular reabsorption. The antinatriuresis was not accompanied by a change in the fractional excretion of lithium, suggesting that proximal tubular function is unaffected by oxytocin receptor antagonism; nor was it accompanied by a change in the fractional excretion of potassium, suggesting that the tubular effect is located beyond the potassium secretory site, i.e. downstream of the cortical collecting tubule. We conclude that circulating plasma concentrations of oxytocin during anaesthesia and moderate surgery are sufficient to enhance GFR and reduce fractional tubular sodium and water reabsorption. This has important implications for the interpretation of invasive studies such as micropuncture.
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