Differential expression of suppressors of cytokine signalling genes in response to nutrition and growth hormone in the septic rat

in Journal of Endocrinology

GH treatment during critical illness and sepsis may increase mortality. A family of negative regulators of cytokine signalling, the suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS), have been characterised. SOCS provide a mechanism for cross-talk between the cytokine receptors, including GH. Here, we have investigated the impact of nutrition and GH treatment on GH receptor, SOCS1, SOCS-2, SOCS-3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) hepatic mRNA expression in a rat model of sepsis, caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Four groups of rats were studied: control (food given ad libitum, n=7), CLP only (n=8), CLP and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (n=9), and CLP, TPN and GH (n=10). CLP rats underwent surgery and 18 h later received saline or TPN or TPN+GH for 6 h before they were killed. Serum IGF-I levels were lower in all CLP groups (P<0.001). The combination of TPN and GH treatment increased IGF-I levels compared with the saline-treated CLP rats (P<0.01), but IGF-I levels remained lower than control animals (P<0.001). GH receptor and GH-binding protein expression in liver was reduced in animals subjected to CLP and was unaffected by nutrition or GH treatment. Hepatic SOCS-1 was detectable in normal rats, induced in all CLP animals but was unaffected by nutrition and GH. Hepatic SOCS-2 expression was difficult to detect in normal and CLP rats but was greatly induced in CLP rats treated with GH. Hepatic SOCS-3 expression was only just detectable in the control group but was elevated in all CLP groups and unaffected by nutrition and GH. Hepatic CIS expression was difficult to detect in normal rats, was not induced by CLP but was induced by both nutrition and GH. In conclusion, CLP induced low IGF-I levels associated with increased expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3, both of which are known to inhibit GH receptor signalling. GH induced SOCS-2 and CIS in the CLP rat despite resistance with respect to IGF-I generation, and parenteral feeding induced CIS in the CLP rat. Thus, there is potential for a complex interaction between GH and cytokine signalling at the level of SOCS expression whereby the inflammatory response may alter GH signalling and GH may influence the inflammatory response.

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