The coding region of the human thyroglobulin (TG) mRNA has been resequenced, and comparison with the TG sequence originally published in 1987 showed many variations. All of the variations were validated in 20--40 other alleles, and this resulted in the revision of 41 nucleotide positions. This review presents the revised wild-type human TG sequence, including all known exon/exon boundaries and additional data on the TG mRNA population, concerning alternative splicing and variability of the polyadenylation cleavage site. The amino acid sequence derived shows one additional, 12 changed, and 10 polymorphic residues. Protein characteristics, such as acceptor and donor tyrosine residues, N-glycosylation sites, cysteine-rich repeats, the proposed receptor domain, and antigenic epitopes, are included, and their relationship to the revised sequence is discussed. Furthermore, all reported TG mutations causing dyshormonogenesis in humans and animals are designated in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences. This up-to-date profile of the human TG molecule presents the features of importance for its complex role in thyroid hormonogenesis, and is the basis for future studies on the structure--function relationship.
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