Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) acts as a glucose-dependent growth factor for beta-cells. Here we show that GIP and glucose also act synergistically as anti-apoptotic factors for beta-cells, using the well-differentiated beta-cell line, INS-1. Mitogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling of GIP were dependent upon pleiotropic activation of protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP regulatory element binder (CREB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/PKB signaling modules. The signaling modules activated by GIP were dependent on glucose metabolism and calcium influx and were tightly linked by multiple activating and inhibiting cross-talk. These interactions included: (i) a central role of tyrosine phosphorylation for stimulation of PKA/CREB, MAPK and PI3-kinase/PKB, (ii) inhibition of PKA/CREB by the MAPK pathway at the level of MAPK kinase-1 or downstream, (iii) activation of MAPK signaling by PI3-kinase and PKA at the level of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 or upstream, and (iv) activation of PKB by MAPK and PKA signaling at the level of PKB or upstream. Furthermore, we demonstrated inhibition of CREB signaling by Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase I/IV. These results indicated that GIP acts as a mitogenic and anti-apoptotic factor for beta-cells by pleiotropic activation of tightly linked signaling pathways in beta-cells.
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